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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know that  63 nations  were at the 1939  fair===

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5 Fascinating Facts About The Empire State Building_2

On May 1, 1931, the Empire State Building was officially opened when President Herbert Hoover turned the lights on with a push of a button from Washington, D.C. Here are 5 little-known facts about one of the United States’ most iconic skyscrapers...

The Empire State Building Went Up in 13 Months

At 102 stories tall, the Empire State Building was meant to rival two other prominent skyscrapers being built at the time: the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. While its height was certainly awe-inspiring, perhaps even more amazing was the fact that John Jakob Raskob's crew built the entire building in just over a year. At their peak, construction crews were completing 4.5 stories a week. The project completed way ahead of schedule and under-budget.

During World War II, the Building Was Hit by a Bomber

On a foggy day in July 1945, a Mitchell B-25 bomber was traveling to New York City from Massachusetts. The accounts differ, but it is believed the plane was denied landing permission at the airport and advised to turn away from the city because of the weather. The pilot, William Franklin Smith, Jr., ended up crashing into the skyscraper, and the accident killed 14 people.

The Mast at the Top of the Empire State Building Was Originally a Docking Station for Airships.

When the building was constructed in the early 1930s, transatlantic airships were gaining steam and appeared to be the future of intercontinental travel. As a result, the building's designers included a 200-foot mast at the top of the building intended as a docking station for arriving airships. Passengers would deboard via a ramp, go through customs, and be on the streets of Manhattan in seven minutes or less. But high winds (and the eventual distaste for airship travel) made the concept a complete flop. Aside from a couple of publicity stunts, the tower was never used for docking purposes.

One Woman Fell 75 Stories From Inside the Building and Survived

When the bomber crashed into the building in 1945, pieces of the plane’s engine went into several of the 73 elevator shafts, severing the cables in two of the cars. Unfortunately, Betty Lou Oliver, one of the elevator operators, age 19, was inside one of them on the 75th floor when it happened, and the elevator fell all the way to the sub-basement. Fortunately, over 1,000 feet of the severed cable had landed at the elevator shaft bottom in advance, which cushioned the landing, and although she was seriously injured, Oliver survived.

Three People Have Parachuted Off the Building's Observation Deck.

If you've ever been to the top of the Empire State Building, you know there is security and fencing up everywhere. And for good reason: In 1986, two daredevils successfully hid parachutes from security and launched themselves from the top of the building. Both survived and were arrested. Fourteen years later, another man followed suit and jumped from the observation deck. He managed to evade capture and later successfully jumped from the Chrysler Building, too. He was finally caught while attempting a jump from the World Trade Center.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know that there  was  a  docking platform  at the  top for  airships====I  did  not

that  a  young  girl  fell  75  stories  in an  elevator  and  lived

dgrimm60

 

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Cheerios

On May 2, 1941, General Mills began shipping Cheerioats, their new dry cereal, to different test markets. The breakfast cereal was later renamed Cheerios. Here are 5 surprising things you didn’t know about Cheerios...

The Popular Cereal Might Have Been Considered an Unapproved Drug

General Mills asserted that Cheerios could cause your cholesterol level to go down by 4 percent if you ate it for six weeks. The company was contacted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2009, demanding that they remove the claim or apply for an application for a new drug. General Mills responded by saying the FDA had previously approved their claims of the benefits to health of soluble fiber, and the FDA backed off.

Scientists Named an Effect in Fluid Mechanics After Cheerios

A Harvard University mathematician and graduate student attending Cambridge University used the name Cheerio Effect to demonstrate three physics concepts: surface tension, the meniscus effect and buoyancy. If one Cheerio is placed in a bowl with milk, its weight makes the cereal dip a little, which forms a dent in the milk, while an additional Cheerio will do the same thing. However, if the two pieces of cereal come close to each other, they will touch as though they are attracted to each other.

Only Plain Cheerios Were Marketed for Many Years

General Mills only produced plain Cheerios for about 30 years, but began selling Cinnamon Nut Cheerios in 1976 and Honey Nut Cheerios a few years later. The Honey Nut Cheerios were a big hit and Buzz the Bee became recognized as its mascot. Honey Nut Cheerios has outsold the original flavor since 2009, becoming the number one selling cereal.

Mascots for Cheerios First Appears Around the 1940s

Cheeri O’Leary was the name of the little girl who first appeared in the 1940s as the mascot in ads for Cheerios. During the 1950s and 1980s, television commercials featured the Cheerios Kid and a sidekick named Sue, where the Kid ate Cheerios and then went on to solve problems — similar to Popeye eating his spinach. Those two characters were revived in 2012 to explain to viewers how Cheerios could help lower cholesterol.

Rocky and Bullwinkle Appeared on the Box in the 1960s

Cartoon programs were used by General Mills to promote their cereals about 1959. It must have been successful because the company began making commercials using Rocky and Bullwinkle in the 1960s. On the cereal boxes appeared Hoppity Hooper, who was featured in activities for children to do on the backs of the boxes.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that Honey  Nut  Cheerios as been the  number  one  selling  cereal since 2009

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Margaret Thatcher_3

On May 4, 1979, Margaret Thatcher was sworn in as the first female prime minister of Great Britain.Known to many as the Iron Lady, she was the longest-serving prime minister in the 20th century and the first female British PM. Here are five things you didn't know about Margaret Thatcher...

She Was Instrumental in Developing Soft-Serve Ice Cream

Every time you get soft-serve ice cream, you can thank the Iron Lady herself. Before moving into politics, Thatcher was a food scientist who had studied chemistry. At one point, she and other scientists worked on a project to add air to ice cream, which would produce a product with fewer ingredients to save companies money. The result was a softer ice cream with the consistency of whipped topping. The product became known in the UK as Mr. Whippy.

She Served as Prime Minister Longer Than any Other 20th Century Figure

Thatcher was first elected as prime minister in 1979, reelected in 1983 and again in 1987. Following divisions in the party regarding the European Community and a poll tax, she resigned as both prime minister and Conservative leader in 1990. Her service as prime minister to Great Britain was the longest since Lord Liverpool, who served from 1812 to 1927.

She's the Subject of a Public Holiday in the Falkland Islands

Thatcher acted quickly when Argentina tried to take over the Falkland Islands, a British territory off the coast of Argentina. The result was a two-month battle that saw the UK retain control over the area. As a tribute to Thatcher, the Falkland Islands celebrate Margaret Thatcher Day every January 10. 

She Lost Her First Bids for Election

Thatcher ran as the youngest candidate for the House of Commons at age 24. She lost the race but ran again the following year, losing for a second time. In her third race, she won the seat representing the Finchley Borough constituency, which is in northern London.

The IRA Tried to Kill Her

On October 12, 1984, Thatcher was in Brighton at the Grand Hotel for an annual conference of the Conservative Party when a 20-pound gelignite bomb, planted by the Irish Republican Army, went off. The bomb had been placed in the bathroom of the suite where Thatcher was staying. Five people died and 30 were injured, but Thatcher and her husband survived unharmed.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I  did  not  know that  she  help  invent  soft  ice cream before she  was in  politics

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Alan B. Shepard Jr.

On May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. was launched into space aboard the Freedom 7 space capsule, becoming the first American astronaut to travel into space.  Here are 5 things you probably didn't know about Alan Shepard, who later commanded the Apollo 14 mission...

His Historic Trip Into Space Lasted Only 15 Minutes

In 1961, Shepard became the first American to travel in space and handle the controls when his Freedom 7 spacecraft blasted into the sky from the launch pad in Florida. Yuri Gagarin, the Soviet cosmonaut, had become the first human in space a month earlier. Shepard’s mission lasted about 15 minutes and traveled over 300 miles when it then came down, landing in the Atlantic Ocean, where he was retrieved by an aircraft carrier.

He Took Off in a Pee-stained Spacesuit

Being an astronaut would be pretty cool, but there is one part of it worth being afraid of. No, we're not talking about all the dangers that come with going into space, we're talking about what happens when you put on that fancy suit, strap into the ship, are waiting for liftoff and suddenly realize ... you have to go to the bathroom. That's what happened to Alan Sheppard at around the four-hour mark of waiting for his famous flight to take off. But mission control was trying to put the first man in space. They weren't going to shut down the whole operation so the guy could use the facilities. They told him he could either hold it in or he could let it go. So he did the latter. Into his suit. After that flight, NASA got to work on adding a urinary collection device to the spacesuits.

He's the Only Person to Play Golf on the Moon

Shepard, along with Edgar Mitchell and Stuart Roosa, were chosen to go to the moon on the Apollo 14 mission. Once they reached the moon, they were there for over 33 hours. Shepard was the oldest astronaut in space and wanted to do something memorable. So, he smuggled a makeshift six-iron on board the spacecraft and hit two balls during his moonwalk. Shepard estimated that the second one soared 200 yards, thanks to the moon's much lower gravity.

Medical Problems Probably Saved Shepard's Life

Shepard was unfortunately disqualified from a number of subsequent missions after he developed Meniere's disease. The symptoms of the disease made space flight far too dangerous. However, the disease may have saved his life. It most likely kept him off of Apollo 1, a mission which met with tragedy when a cabin fire during training ultimately killed all three astronauts on board. Eventually, surgery enabled him to return to work and eventually fly on board the moon-bound Apollo 14 ...

He Was the First Astronaut Millionaire

During the years when Shepard suffered from Ménière's disease, which causes vertigo and nausea, he considered leaving NASA, but ended up staying and taking a desk job as head of the astronaut office. He spent his free time investing in banks and real estate and soon became a millionaire. He retired from NASA in 1974 and became a chairman in Marathon Construction Company, and later president of a Coors beer distribution company in Houston. He died in 1998 due to complications from leukemia.

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About the Hindenburg

On May 6, 1937, the German airship Hindenburg crashed and burned in Lakehurst, New Jersey as it attempted to land. The Hindenburg disaster, which was recorded on film, marked the end of the use of airships as a form of travel. Here are five things you probably didn't know about the Hindenburg...

There Actually Weren't That Many People Killed Relative to Other Major Air and Sea Disasters

The Hindenburg disaster is often represented in popular culture by that famous shot of the zeppelin with its nose tilted upward, its rear half consumed by flames and debris. It's ranked as one of the most terrifying events of the century, one of those disasters that everyone learns about along with the Titanic and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and subsequent fires. The image is one of immense calamity. Yet you may be surprised to learn that there weren't that many people lost. A total of 36 people were killed, unlike the Titanic in which over 1,500 people died. That doesn't mean the disaster was any less terrible than its reputation implies; any loss of life in a disaster is too much.

The Zeppelin Was a Nazi Ship

It's no secret that the Hindenburg was traveling to the United States when the Nazis ruled Germany, but the pictures from the disaster don't always show the swastikas on its tail, which were clearly visible from the ground. In fact, one woman who remembers seeing the zeppelin in flight told the Guardian that, as the Hindenburg flew over Pennsylvania on its way to New Jersey, people in the neighborhood made angry gestures toward the airship when they saw the swastikas. After the disaster, people wondered if the airship had been sabotaged because of reports that there had been earlier threats.

The Ship Combusted, Which Is Not the Same as "Exploded," Although It All Started With a Spark

The core causes of the disaster are still debated periodically, but most agree that a spark did ignite the hydrogen that had leaked out of one of the containers at the back of the ship. After that initial ignition, the ship didn't explode; it burned rapidly instead, taking less than a minute to disappear into a heap of flames. The disaster was caught on film, and you can find videos online that show how quickly it happened.

The Disaster Could Have Been Prevented

The Hindenburg had made several trans-Atlantic crossings before May 1937, so it was considered a routine form of transportation that was safe and reliable. One of the problems with the use of the airship, though, was that it couldn't really fly in high winds. At the time of the fated flight, the airship was already late because of winds, and it flew in for a landing in bad weather conditions that included thunder. Because the ship had a schedule to keep -- it was supposed to unload passengers and add a new load of passengers quickly before heading right back to Germany -- the pilots and ground crew attempted a different type of landing that would allow the ship to touch down more quickly. This involved throwing cables from the ship to the ground so that the ground crew could pull the ship down. Unfortunately, the cables acted as electrical conductors in the wet conditions and may have produced the spark that ignited the hydrogen. Had the ship attempted its usual type of landing, which didn't require those cables, it might not have caught fire.

The Disaster Led to One of the More Famous Phrases in Modern English

NBC announcer Herb Morrison was at the scene, planning to record what should have been a standard news announcement about the landing. Instead, Morrison ended up narrating the disaster -- this was not live, but it was later broadcast across the country -- and he exclaimed, "Oh, the humanity!" at one point. That was the first recorded use of the phrase, and any time you hear that phrase used in TV shows, movies, or other media, remember where it came from.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  when  he  retired  form  NASA  that  he  was the  president  of  COORS BEER 

dgrimm60

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know that  there  were only  36  people  killed when  it  crashed

dgrimm60

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5 Facts About the Sinking of The Lusitania

On the afternoon of May 7, 1915, the British ocean liner Lusitania was torpedoed without warning by a German submarine off the south coast of Ireland.  Here are five things you probably didn't know about the sinking of the Lusitania...

The Lusitania Was Briefly the World's Largest Passenger Ship

The Lusitania was around for a long time before her sinking; her maiden voyage was actually in 1907, so people knew her as a fast and tough ship that could get people across the sea efficiently. When she was initially launched, she was also the largest passenger ship in the world. That didn't last long; the Mauretania, her "running mate" or paired ship that offered similar travel schedules, was soon launched, taking that title away from the Lusitania.

The German Embassy (in the U.S.) Printed a Warning a Month Before the Ship Set off on Its Last Journey

The German embassy took an unusual step a month before the Lusitania's last voyage. It placed newspaper ads reminding the U.S. public that a war was on in Europe and that trans-Atlantic voyages could be subject to danger. The ad specifically named the waters around the UK as a danger zone and basically threatened any ship in that area.

The Ship Was Gone in Less Than 18 Minutes

The ship was hit in just the right way to make it list severely to one side, preventing lifeboats from launching. Adding to the problem, the ship's boilers exploded after the attack, leading to a very fast sinking. While the ship was yet another that people had considered invincible, the list to one side and the damaged boilers affected the ship so badly that the ship took on too much water, too quickly. It took only 18 minutes for the entire boat to sink.

The Attack on the Ship Was a Major Factor in Getting the U.S. to Join the War

Almost 1,200 people died as a result of the attack, including 128 Americans. You can imagine the outcry over the sinking of a passenger ship, despite Germany's claims that it was acting as more than just a passenger ship. While the sinking of the Lusitania didn't lead immediately to the U.S. joining -- and in fact, it led to Germany reducing attacks in the zone (not eliminating them; another liner was sunk later that year) -- it did make the U.S. public angry with Germany and began the slow march toward the U.S. joining the war in 1917 after the Germans sank yet another liner, the Housatonic.

The Ship Was the Subject of a Pretty Nasty Conspiracy Theory

By now it's not unusual to hear about conspiracy theories surrounding a disaster. In the case of the Lusitania, however, the theories were rather nasty given the surrounding situation: They focused on the possibility that the ship might have been deliberately put in harm's way and sabotaged to make it sink faster, all to get the U.S. to join the war. The main theory states that the British wanted to get the heavily isolationist U.S. to finally join their side in the devastating conflict and rigged the ship to sink fast. The quick demise, the fact that it took only one torpedo to cause such damage, and even the fact that the ship took such a dangerous route all bolstered the theory. But historians have been quick to note that the ship was, at the time, considered so fast and modern that the thinking was that it could outrun trouble.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that there  were  conspiracy theory  about the  ship===

I  did  not  know  that  it  only  took  18  minutes for the  ship to  sink

dgrimm60

 

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Honeymooners

On this day in 1971, the last original episode of the sitcom The Honeymooners, starring Jackie Gleason as Brooklyn bus driver Ralph Kramden, aired. Here are 5 things you probably didn’t know about this sitcom, which was born as a popular sketch on Jackie Gleason’s variety show...

The Honeymooners Was Filmed at a Theater

Jackie Gleason, who played Ralph Kramden on The Honeymooners, didn’t like to waste time. Although most television studios filmed just one episode each week, Gleason insisted that they film two. Instead of being shot at a television studio, the filming was done at the Adelphi Theater in front of a live audience.

Audrey Meadows Almost Didn’t Get Cast as Alice Kramden

Jackie Gleason rejected actress Audrey Meadows for the part of Alice Kramden because he thought she was too pretty and young to play the part. Meadows, determined to get the role, returned home, changed her hair, put on a house dress and took off her makeup. She then had photos taken of her new look and sent them to Gleason by messenger, where he declared, “That’s Alice!”

When Jackie Gleason Forgot His Lines, He Would Pat His Stomach

Gleason wasn’t one to do dress rehearsals because he liked the freshness and spontaneity that came with performing the show without them in front of a live audience. The other cast members, Audrey Meadows, Art Carney and Joyce Randolph, used to practice their lines without Gleason being present, so there were times when Gleason got caught short and forgot his. When he'd forget his lines, he would pat his stomach, so one of the other actors could cover it.

The Character of Ed Norton Was Based on Art Carney’s Father

Kramden’s sidekick, Ed Norton, who was played by Art Carney, was well-known for his obsessive behavior and wild gesturing, no matter what he was doing. Carney’s idea for the gestures came from the real mannerisms of his own father, who did not perform any tasks simply. For example, when signing a report card, Carney’s father would adjust the lamp, line up the report card, check his pen and flex his arms before signing.

The Show Went Off the Air Because the Writers Ran Out of Material

Fans were surprised when The Honeymooners came to a screeching halt after one season, especially since it almost beat out I Love Lucy in the television rankings at the beginning. One of the problems was that The Perry Como Show had been moved by NBC into a competing slot and this caused The Honeymooners to go from the number two slot to number 19 in the Nielsen ratings. While it might have been canceled by CBS anyway because of its low ratings, Gleason said it was over because writers would have had to struggle to come up with future material for the program.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did not that  JACKIE  GLEASON  did  not  practice  his  line and  when  he for got them he  patty  his  stomach

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Transcontinental Railroad

On May 10, 1869, a golden spike was driven into the last railroad tie at Promontory, Utah, marking the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States. Here are 5 surprising things you didn't know about this massive project that provided more accessible travel for Americans and revolutionized shipping....

The Ambitious Rail Line Project Was Begun During the Civil War

The Civil War was in full swing in 1862 with Stonewall Jackson driving soldiers with the Union Army away from Winchester, Virginia, and Union ships seizing control around the Mississippi River. In addition to dealing with the war, President Abraham Lincoln was concerned about the country’s future and its progress. On July 1, 1862, he committed the federal government to the construction of a rail line that would lead from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific by signing the Pacific Railway Act into law.

Two Different Railroad Companies Worked on the Project

Under the provisions of the Pacific Railway Act, two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad would be building the route to the west, and the rail lines would come together at an unspecified point. It was a lucrative job for the railroad companies, and they were paid in government bonds of $16,000 for one mile of track and up to $48,000 in areas of difficult terrain, plus a sizeable amount of land.

Workers Who Were Mostly Immigrants Built the Rail Line

Because of the ongoing war and gold fever in the west, it was difficult at first for the railroads to find employees. The Central Pacific Railroad hired more than 10,000 immigrants from China to prepare the rail beds, dig tunnels, lay the track and build the bridges. The Union Pacific laid little track until the close of 1865 because of the war but then hired mainly Irish immigrants to do the work.

Nineteen Train Tunnels Were Dug Out by Hand

Excavating a tunnel was much more difficult back in the 1860s and was done by hand using hammers and chisels, making progress of about one foot each day. The Union Pacific managed to create four out of the total of 19 tunnels, but it fell to the Central Pacific to make it through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. One tunnel near Donner Pass, the infamous site where Alfred Packer turned cannibal with the Donner party, caused untold deaths of Chinese railroad workers as they froze to death digging through granite at 7,000 feet of altitude and snowfalls of up to 40 feet.

A Bet Was Waged on Which Company Could Lay the Most Track in One Day

Promontory Point in Utah was designated by President U.S. Grant as the place where the two different railroad lines would meet, completing the line that would lead from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans, so naturally, the railroad crews decided to bet on which company would get there first. Charles Croker, the Central Pacific construction supervisor, bet they could lay the longest amount of track in a day against Thomas Durant’s crew, who worked for the Union Pacific. Crocker’s team won after laying 10 miles, while Durant’s team laid only seven.

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Deep Blue

On May 11, 1997, IBM’s supercomputer Deep Blue made chess history by defeating Garry Kasparov, the chess champion widely regarded as the greatest who has ever lived. Here are 5 shocking things you didn't know about this challenge between man and machine...

The Name Deep Blue Came from IBM’s Nickname

The Deep Blue chess program was originally called Chiptest and was created by Thomas Anantharaman and Feng-Hsiung Hsu, who were students at Carnegie Mellon University. They joined the IBM corporation later, and the name was changed to Deep Thought and then to Deep Blue, which was a variation of the nickname for the IBM corporation Big Blue. Although Garry Kasparov beat the computer in 1966 in a six-game match, the computer won in 1997 with 3.5 games to Kasparov’s 2.5

The Fredkin Prize Was Finally Awarded After 17 Years

The Fredkin Prize was created in 1980 by Edward Fredkin, a professor at Carnegie Mellon University, who was a pioneer in artificial intelligence. The prize was to be awarded to whoever could create a computer capable of beating the top chess player in the world. Deep Blue accomplished this in 1997, and the big prize was awarded to the IBM team that upgraded the machine so it could beat Kasparov.

Kasparov Had Beaten a Previous Version of the Computer at Chess

Deep Thought, the precursor to Deep Blue, was created in 1988 and named after the fictional computer in “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.” Kasparov beat the machine in two games they played together in 1989. This was when developers of the software realized that the program needed more work.

Back to the Drawing Board

At a match held in Philadelphia on February 10, 1996, Kasparov easily beat Deep Blue, even though the machine won one game, which won its program developers the Fredkin Prize, and two other games were draws. Kasparov won three games, but IBM once again upgraded the computer for the next rematch.

Kasparov Finally Lost to Deep Blue

The final match was in New York City on May 11, 1997, and drew a large audience. Kasparov won the initial game, but it was a tie when Deep Blue won the second and tension mounted in the audience when the next three chess games were draws. The computer quickly won the last game, and the team for Deep Blue refused a rematch, probably since they had met their goal.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  19  tunnels  were dug  out by  hand with  mostly Chinese  immigrants 

dgrimm60

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PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  how the  computer got  its  name===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Mother's Day

May 12th is Mother's Day, and while you should probably celebrate by telling mom you love her, that doesn't mean you can't also stretch your brain with some trivia. Here are surprising 5 things you didn't know about Mother's Day...

The History of American Mother's Day Started With Ann Jarvis

The woman who had championed the day, Anna Jarvis, had for years campaigned for a day for mothers on the grounds that existing holidays tended to favor men. She was also dedicated to creating an official day to honor the work mothers put in to raising their children, and she envisioned the day as one when everyone would return home and thank their mothers for raising them.  A plaque commemorates the inaugural Mother’s Day celebration at Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church in Grafton, West Virginia. It was held on May 10, 1908.

President Woodrow Wilson Made the Holiday Official

Making Mother’s Day a state holiday wasn’t enough for Anna Jarvis, and she continued to press for it to become a national celebration. It was brought to the attention of President Woodrow Wilson. In 1914, he proclaimed that Mother’s Day would be celebrated nationwide on the second Sunday in May and directed that the flag be flown on all the government buildings to express reverence and love for all the country’s mothers.

Anna Jarvis Would Later Try to Stop What Mother's Day Became

The commercialization of Mother's Day started almost instantly. And Jarvis hated it. While she was offered many opportunities to profit off her celebrity, she went the opposite way. She urged people not to buy gifts and flowers for their moms. She even shipped out free buttons with pictures of carnations on them to be given as gifts instead of the actual flower which had become associated with the holiday.  Jarvis didn't just ask people not to commercialize the holiday, she tried to legally forbid it. Press releases often included the line, "Any charity, institution, hospital, organization, or business using Mother's Day names, work, emblem, or celebration for getting money, making sales or on printed forms should be held as imposters by proper authorities, and reported to this association." When businesses did it anyway, she sued. According to a Newsweek article, she, at one point, had 33 separate lawsuits going to prevent organizations from profiting off her holiday.

The French Awarded Medals on Mother’s Day

There was an enormous loss of life of 15 to 19 million people during World War I, and populations were decimated in European countries. France decided that it was a good idea to show mothers in their country how important they were, so they awarded them with medals in 1920 as a Mother’s Day gift. A bronze medal was awarded to mothers with five children, a silver medal to those who had eight, and the gold medals went to moms with 10 or more.

About 25 Percent of Flower Purchases for Mother’s Day Are Carnations

Most moms love to get flowers as a gift on Mother’s Day, and carnations represent about ¼ of the flowers purchased for this special occasion. Carnations are said to represent the tears of Mary, the mother of Christ, as she wept when her son Jesus was crucified. Red and pink carnations are for mothers who are still living, and white carnations are for the mothers who have passed on.

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Mexican-American War

On May 13, 1846, President Polk declared war on Mexico following a border dispute over Texas. Here are 5 things you probably didn't know about the Mexican-American War...

Polk Wanted to Buy the Land, but Mexico Refused

John Slidell was sent by President Polk in 1845 to settle a border dispute with Mexico or buy their territories in California and New Mexico for up to $25 million. The Mexicans refused to sell, so Polk sent Zachary Taylor, along with 4,000 troops to occupy land between the Rio Grande and Nueces River, which Mexico claimed as theirs. It isn’t surprising that Mexico sent its own cavalry troops to the area, which attacked American dragoons, and war was declared on Mexico on May 13, 1846.

President Polk Mistakenly Trusted Santa Anna

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna wasn’t exactly looked upon favorably by Americans after the Battle of the Alamo in 1836; however, President Polk didn’t share their opinion. Santa Anna was in Cuba when the war with Mexico began and convinced Polk that if he was allowed to return to his country, he would push for peace. Polk agreed but when Santa Anna returned to Mexico he reclaimed the presidency and led the Mexican troops, and they won many battles in the war due to his leadership.

A Large Group of Irish Soldiers Deserted to Support Mexico

An elite force of artillery soldiers that served Santa Anna was composed of about 200 Irish Catholics who had deserted from the U.S. Army’s St. Patrick’s Battalion. Because they were Catholic, they had faced prejudice due to their religion, and the American military only offered Protestant church services. After serving with distinction in battle in the Mexican military, most were captured or killed at Churubusco in August 1847, and the U.S. Army executed about 50.

About 50 Percent of Mexico’s Size Was Lost in the War

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that was signed after the close of the war forced Mexico to relinquish Texas and accept $15 million as payment for 525,000 square miles of territory. This land later became part or all of the states of California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas and Oklahoma.

The Casualty Rate Was Enormous

The Mexican-American War was costly in terms of lives lost, and 13,200 Americans died out of the 79,000 troops, which was almost 17 percent. This made the count higher than both world wars, although most died from smallpox, malaria, dysentery or yellow fever. Up to 25,000 Mexican civilians and troops were casualties of the war, so that country suffered huge losses as well.

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phkrause

5 Things You Didn't Know About The Seinfeld Show

On the evening of May 14, 1998, an estimated 76 million TV viewers tuned in to watch the final episode of Seinfeld. Think you're a Seinfeld trivia expert? Here are five things you probably didn't know about Seinfeld...

It Wasn't Supposed to Be a Show About Nothing

Seinfeld is often called a show about nothing, but it wasn't meant to be. It turns out that when Seinfeld was originally pitched, it was spun as a mockumentary-styled show about how a comic gets his material.In fact, the "nothing" bit wasn't associated with the show until the episode "The Pitch" ran in 1992, three years into the show's run. The idea that the show was about nothing caught on with audiences, and the nickname stuck.

Kramer and George Costanza's Names Were Based on Real People -- Who Had Very Different Reactions to the Use of Their Names

Kramer's character went through a couple of name changes. The last name was taken from a neighbor of Larry David, but the network thought legal issues might arise. They had the name changed to Hoffman and then Kessler, but it was soon changed back to Kramer after the neighbor gave permission (and received a small fee). The person who George Costanza was named after wasn't so agreeable, however. The last name "Costanza" was taken from a friend of Jerry Seinfeld, and that friend sued for defamation, claiming the character was based on him. The lawsuit went nowhere.

More People and Organizations "Celebrate" the Show's Fake Holiday, Festivus, Each Year

You're not going to find Festivus highlighted on your smartphone's calendar along with Christmas. However, you will find Festivus poles in random places (including the Illinois State Capitol, more than once), and at least one newspaper, the Tampa Bay Times, has created a yearly tradition of letting readers air their grievances through the paper. Everyone pretty much admits the holiday is fake, but with people doing something Festivus-related each year now, it could be considered a real pop-culture holiday.

Elaine Benes Almost Wasn't in the Show

Elaine was not a character in the original concept of the show. In that one-off, late-night episode that became the show's pilot, another female character named Claire was supposed to be a part of the supporting cast. Claire was a waitress at the diner who would verbally spar with Jerry and George, but Seinfeld says they wanted a female character who would be more of a core character in the show. There are rumors that the actress who played Claire was let go after rewriting lines, but Seinfeld says that wasn't the case.

Even the Cast Has Kept the Finale's Reputation Alive Through Jokes

The finale to the show wasn't well-received, but the cast has not been that concerned about its reception. In fact, they've kept the joke alive to an extent. During a sort-of-Seinfeld-reunion on the series finale of Larry David's Curb Your Enthusiasm in 2009, Jerry jokes about how they already screwed up one finale. Another example occurred on David Letterman's last show in 2015, when Julia Louis-Dreyfuss thanked Letterman for "allowing her to take part in another hugely disappointing series finale."

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did not  know that  there  was  a  IRISH group of  soldiers  that defected  to the  MEXICAN  side

dgrimm60

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that there  was  a problem  with both  the  names  of  KRAMER  and  CASTANZA===

I   also  did not  know  that   ELAINE  BENES  was  not the  original  show

dgrimm60

 

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phkrause

5 Things You Didn't Know About Mount St. Helens

On this day in 1980, Mount St. Helens, a volcanic peak in southwestern Washington, erupted, killing 57 people. Here are 5 things you probably didn’t know about the events that led to the eruption and the dangerous consequences…

There Was Advance Warning That Mount St. Helens Would Erupt

Several months before the devastating eruption of Mount St. Helens, small earthquakes began occurring, so a new seismograph system was installed by the University of Washington, particularly near the volcano. On March 20, there was a 4.2-magnitude earthquake and tremors grew steadily. The U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Geological Survey held conferences and deployed teams, which went out and placed research posts, along with taking readings and photos. It was determined that the north side of Mount St. Helens had developed a bulge that was increasing six feet each day, and it was just a matter of time before an eruption occurred.

A Landslide Set Off the Explosion

Two people performing an aerial survey at the volcano spotted where a landslide had recently occurred, and seconds later, the north face of Mount Saint Helens collapsed, which released the trapped magma and superheated gases in a massive explosion. The blast wiped out everything within eight miles and leveled century-old trees for a distance of 19 miles. The direct force of the blast covered almost 230 square miles, leaving the heavily forested areas still standing but dead.

The Explosion Was Heard a Long Distance Away

The blast of the volcanic explosion at Mount St. Helens was so strong that people in California, Idaho, Montana and British Columbia heard it. However, those living in closer cities such as Portland, Oregon, which is 50 miles away, heard nothing because they were inside the quiet zone. This is related to the complexity of sound waves, depending on air motion, temperature, topography and atmosphere.

The Ash Plume Was More Than 80,000 Feet High

After the mountain’s summit had collapsed on its north side, a black, choking smoke and ash cloud appeared that rose high enough that people hundreds of miles away could view it. Within 15 minutes, it formed a mushroom cloud 15 miles across and more than 10,000 feet high. Because winds were strong, cities and nearby states experienced the ash fall.

The Eruption Killed 57 People

Even though the area around Mount St. Helens was lightly populated, it destroyed hundreds of houses and killed around 7,000 large animals such as bears and deer. Fifty-seven people died from breathing in the ash or were buried alive. One local resident, Harry Randall Truman, was adamant about staying in his home and is assumed to have died because of the eruption, but his body was never found.

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