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5 Interesting Facts About Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

On June 19, 1953, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, who were convicted of conspiring to pass U.S. atomic secrets to the Soviets, were executed at Sing Sing Prison.  Though the couple made headlines throughout the early 1950s, here are five interesting facts you may not have read in the papers...

It Was Ethel's Brother Who Ratted Them Out.

According to the FBI investigation and outside accounts, the Rosenbergs were actively conducting spy activities for the Soviets from 1942 until their arrest in the summer of 1950. Together they recruited several members of the top-secret "Manhattan Project" including Ethel's brother, David Greenglass. The FBI caught up with Greenglass in June 1950, and he quickly implicated Julius while (at first) denying his sister's involvement. That all changed when prosecutors threatened to put Greenglass's wife, Ruth, behind bars along with him. In exchange for immunity for Ruth, Daniel testified that Ethel had an active involvement in her husband's ongoing relations with the Soviets. In a 1996 interview with The New York Times, Greenglass admitted he lied in his testimony to protect his wife.

Albert Einstein, Pablo Picasso, and Pope Pius XII All Pled For Clemency.

Julius and Ethel were both convicted of espionage and sentenced to death in the spring of 1951. Many Americans believed the allegation against them to be false and the sentence to be far too harsh. There were widespread claims of antisemitism and major cultural figures like Einstein, Picasso, the Pope, Frida Kahlo, and Jean-Paul Sartre all advocated for President Eisenhower to intervene and reduce the Rosenbergs' sentence. He declined, and on June 19, 1953, doctors at the Sing Sing prison in New York executed the couple.

Ethel Did Not Go Easy.

The United States Federal Bureau of Prisons did not operate an electric chair of their own, and so the couple was transferred to Sing Sing to meet "Old Sparky," as the chair was called. Julius was first. He died almost immediately from the first shock. Ethel was not so fortunate. She was administered three different shocks before doctors checked her heartbeat—and found she was still alive. The administered another two jolts before she finally passed. It took four-and-a-half minutes to execute Ethel.

The Rosenbergs' Sons Continue to Campaign for Their Mother's Exoneration.

One of the most unfortunate parts of the whole story is that the Rosenbergs had two young sons that were orphaned as a result of the executions. Today, the sons largely accept their father's role in the affair (though they do claim that Julius was not guilty of atomic spying and therefore received too harsh a sentence). But, they maintain their mother's innocence. In the final weeks of Obama's presidency, the two brothers attempted to get Ethel exonerated but did not succeed. To-date, they have not attempted to do so with President Trump, likely because Ray Cohn—a former lawyer and advisor to President Trump—served on the legal team against the Rosenbergs.

But, Historians Believe It's Likely They Both Were Guilty.

Despite the claims of innocence by the Rosenberg boys, historians who have dedicated time and research to studying the Rosenberg case all largely agree that in all likelihood, both Julius and Ethel were guilty of espionage. Declassified FBI documents show Ethel hid money, acted as an intermediary communicator, weighed in on potential recruits, and was present in meetings with Soviet contacts. 

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that the  2  sons  tried  to  get  their  mom exonerated when  OBAMA was  president

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Movie 'Jaws'

On this day in 1975, Jaws, a film directed by Steven Spielberg that made countless viewers afraid to go into the water, opened in theaters nationwide. We decided to celebrate its anniversary with these five fascinating facts about the blockbuster film...

The Original Director of the Movie Was Fired

Dick Richards, who went on to direct Tootsie in the 1980s, was originally hired by the studio’s executives to direct Jaws. However, he ran into trouble when he kept referring to the shark as a whale instead, apparently not realizing the difference between a man-eating fish and a large mammal. The execs at the studio became irritated that he didn’t know the difference and that he was downplaying how terrifying an attack by a large shark would be on a beachside town, so he was removed as the director and replaced by Steven Spielberg.

Veteran Actor Charlton Heston Wanted to Play Chief Brody

Charlton Heston reportedly asked director Steven Spielberg for the part of Chief Brody, which was the starring role in the movie, but was turned down. It is rumored that Heston was so angry he refused to ever work under Spielberg, eventually turning down a role in 1941, which was probably a good move. Spielberg wanted Robert Duvall to play the part of Brody, but the part, fortunately, went to Roy Scheider, who uttered the famous ad lib “You’re gonna need a bigger boat.”

The Mechanical Shark Was a Nightmare

The mechanical shark, nicknamed Bruce and several other uncomplimentary names, cost $250,000 to build, but Steven Spielberg wasn’t impressed. It didn’t function correctly, had teeth that didn’t look real, crossed eyes, the mouth didn’t close correctly, and it reportedly had a dimple that made it resemble Kirk Douglas. It sank the first day, ending up at the bottom of Nantucket Sound. It needed retrofitting and was high-maintenance, which is why viewers don’t see the shark until well into the movie.

The Corpse of a Real Shark Was Used During the Dock Scene

The shark that was hung up by the tail on the dock during the movie was a real one that had been caught along the Florida coast and taken to Martha’s Vineyard, where the filming was being done. Unfortunately, the dead shark was in the process of decomposing, so the stench was terrible. Hanging it upside down made it even worse because the internal organs of the shark came loose and dropped down to its throat, making it difficult for cast members to tolerate being near it.

The Filming of Jaws Was Far Over Budget

The budget to make Jaws was $3.5 million, but because of difficulties with the shark, script scenes that were written only the night before shooting, difficulties with casting and other problems, it ended up being closer to $9 million to produce. Instead of being shot in 55 days, it ended up taking 159 days to make the movie. They needn’t have worried because the reaction of moviegoers was phenomenal, and Jaws brought in more than $471 million worldwide.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  STEVEN SPIELBERG  was  not the 1st choice to  direct  the movie====

dgrimm60

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5 Crazy Facts About The U.S. Constitution_2

On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth and last necessary state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, thereby making the document the law of the land. Here are five crazy facts you didn't know about this important document...

Under the U.S. Constitution, You Could Become a Pirate

While the Federal Government has the power to punish felonies committed by piracy, it can grant someone a letter of marque for someone to become a privateer under Article 1, Section 8. Being granted this license means you could spy on foreign ships, steal from them or even capture them, but the eye patch and Jolly Roger are not supplied. A rumor floating around during World War II was that the Goodyear Blimp was granted the right to hunt for Japanese submarines, but it was just a rumor and never substantiated.

The President Might Have Been Called Something Else

The title “President of the United States” wasn’t the only suggestion when it came to the debate by the Constitutional Convention on what to call the head of the executive branch. Some of the other suggestions were “Exalted Highness,” “Chief Magistrate” and “Elected Highness.” Because Article 1, Section 9 of the Constitution says titles of nobility are a no-no, "President" seemed a good and safe name to call the head of the executive branch.

Patrick Henry Refused to Be a Delegate

Patrick Henry, who is remembered for his statement, “Give me liberty or give me death,” was an elected delegate to attend the Constitutional Convention, but refused to participate, saying that he “smelt a rat.” Thomas Jefferson and John Adams weren’t present, and of those that were, John Hancock, who scrawled his name in huge letters of the Declaration of Independence. Samuel Adams did not attend the convention either. So the final version of the Constitution lacked the input of some great men.

The Constitution Isn’t Free of Grammatical Errors

Even though Americans love the U.S. Constitution, anyone would have to admit that the spelling, phrasing and punctuation aren’t what is used today. This is because it was written when English had not been standardized, so Pennsylvania is spelled several different ways, British spellings are used, and mistakes were made. William Hickey, a clerk in the U.S. Senate, noticed all the errors in words and punctuations and corrected them in the 1840s, and the corrected version was published in 1847.

Not All of the Delegates Signed the Constitution

Thirty-nine of the delegates ended up signing the Constitution, while 42 delegates attended the meetings. Three of the delegates refused to sign because there was no bill of rights that added protections for ordinary citizens in the new country. These were George Mason of Virginia, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts and Edmund Randolph of Virginia.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  only  39  of the  42  delegates  sign  the constitution ====I  did  not  know

that THOMAS JEFFERON and  BENJAMAN FRANKLIN were  not  present===

dgrimm60

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5 Shocking Facts You Didn't Know About John Gotti

On June 23, 1992, John Gotti, was sentenced to life in prison after being found guilty on 14 accounts of conspiracy to commit murder and racketeering.  Here are 5 shocking facts that you probably didn't know about the “Teflon Don”...

He Once Threatened Sinatra

In 2015, Gotti's son published a memoir in which he claimed that Gotti once threatened Frank Sinatra. The story goes that Sinatra made up an excuse about being ill and then canceled a dinner that he was supposed to have with Gotti. Unfortunately, Sinatra later showed up that night at a restaurant, looking rather healthy considering his previous claims. The gangster reportedly told Sinatra that if he ever stood up Gotti again, his would be the last face Sinatra would see on this earth. 

He Went to Jail Five Times Before He Turned 21

Armed robbery, fighting, public intoxication; you name it, John Gotti probably did it. But to have done those before the age of 21? That's pretty unusual. John got his start in organized crime at the age of 12, and aside from a brief foray into legitimate work after marrying his wife in 1962, he never straightened out. His rise to the top came with a few speed bumps, but they called him "The Teflon Don" for the way bigger charges would just slide right off of him.

His Conviction Caused a Literal Riot

Gotti had been nicknamed the "Teflon Don" for his ability to avoid convictions (though this ability was based occasionally on well-placed bribes and not just on good lawyers). When he was finally convicted in 1992, a crowd of protestors outside the court went into riot mode, overturning a car and charging the building. People were yelling and jumping on top of cars, and a few were arrested and charged with riot offenses.

The Man Who Ultimately Got Gotti Convicted Was None Other Than Robert Mueller

The key to Gotti's conviction was getting Salvatore Gravano to turn on him, and the man who managed to convince Gravano was Robert Mueller, the same person who just completed an investigation against President Donald Trump. Mueller managed to get Gravano to change sides by offering him a reduced sentence for the 19 murders Gravano had been accused of.

Gotti's Own Clothes and Cologne Were Loaned to John Travolta During the Making of the Film Gotti

John Travolta and his real-life wife Kelly Preston played John and Victoria Gotti in a movie about the conviction. As part of the character creation process, both Travolta and Preston were loaned clothes and jewelry actually worn by the Gottis. Travolta donned the Dapper Don's suits and cologne, and Preston had both the wedding ring and a second ring owned by Victoria Gotti. Fun fact: That second ring had not left Victoria Gotti's hand until the filming. 

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know that  he  had gone to  jail 5  times  before  he  was  21

dgrimm60

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Level Up With These 5 Facts About Atari_2

On June 27, 1972, an electrical engineer from Utah named Nolan Bushnell and his business partner, Ted Dabney, established their own video game production company. They named it Atari - a reference to Bushnell’s favorite game, Go. Here are five interesting facts about Atari...

Atari 2600 Was the Best Selling Christmas Gift of 1979

Atari 2600 was released to the public in 1977. It was priced at $200 and included nine games, but it was difficult for the company to make any headway in the video game market. In 1979, the company started selling video games all year long and came out with hits like "Space Invaders" and "Asteroids." During the Christmas season in 1979, it sold over 1 million units, making the company a dazzling $200 million.

Steve Jobs Made $5 an Hour Working There

A lot of smart people worked for Atari, and Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple, was one of them. He hung around at Atari’s headquarters in 1974, so the company hired him for $5 an hour, but he had to work the night shift. This is because he reportedly did not bathe very much and went barefoot. While working on "Breakout" with his friend Steve Wozniak, the money they brought in from working at Atari kept them going while they built their prototype Apple computer.

Atari Fired Bill Gates - Yes, That Bill Gates

Because Atari had crossover applications for home computers, they opened a division that worked on computer software for gaming. Bill Gates, the owner of Microsoft, which was then a small company, was hired to program BASIC onto a computer for Atari. Unfortunately, he couldn’t seem to make their deadlines, so they let him go.

If Atari Hadn't Been Successful, We Might Not Have Another Important Childhood Icon.

Bushnell really liked games, and he was also a businessman who didn't want to deal with competition. In 1977, with Atari well-established and its games popular, Bushnell created a pizza parlor that allowed him to place his games, and only his games: Chuck E. Cheese's Pizza-Time Theaters. Bushnell added animatronic entertainment so that parents wouldn't think they were simply taking their kids to an arcade. By the way, Bushnell's first choice for a name? Rick Rat's Pizza. The marketing department understandably objected.

Atari Is Included in the National Toy Hall of Fame

In 2007, the Atari 2600 was added to the National Toy Hall of Fame in Rochester, New York; it is one of the 68 toys featured there. Other classics included in the collection range from alphabet blocks to Rubik’s Cube and LEGO.

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5 Things You Didn't Know About World War I_2

On June 28, 1919, World War I officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles by Germany and the Allies.  Here are 5 interesting facts you probably didn't know about World War I...

The First Tank Used in Combat Was During World War I

Tanks are an essential component of militaries today, so much so that it’s hard to fathom war without them. But up until Sept. 15, 1916 (two years into the Great War), horses were still the main form of cavalry used by militaries. The United Kingdom was the first empire to employ tanks, in the Battle of the Somme, and they were largely ineffectual. There were too many breakdowns and the French heavily criticized their allies for giving away the advantage of surprise by launching the tanks before they were battle ready.

World War I Introduced the First Aircraft Carrier

War was the catalyst that introduced the first aircraft carrier, which was the HMS Furious, a British ship. Learning how to take off and land from a moving ship was difficult, and many early aircraft carriers were conversions built from battle, cargo or other ships. A British commander was the first to successfully land on a ship in 1917, but he died soon after when his plane crashed in his third landing attempt.

The War Kicked Off the Beginning of Plastic Surgery.

It was not just weaponry that saw tremendous advancements during the war—medicine also saw new innovations that carried on into modern times. Plastic surgery got its start during World War I. A doctor named Harold Gillies pioneered facial reconstruction surgery after seeing soldiers injured and disfigured by shrapnel explosions. Blood transfusions also became a regular practice, with the first blood banks established on the frontlines during 1917.

German was the Second Most Widely Spoken Language in the US Before the War.

But that changed when U.S. officials banned German language books and required schools remove German from their curriculums.  Dogs’ names had to be changed too because of anti-German sentiment. In America, “dachshunds” became “liberty dogs”, and in Britain, “German shepherds” started to be called “Alsatians” (after Alsace-Lorraine on the German-French border). Food didn’t escape the renaming craze – sauerkraut became “liberty cabbage” and frankfurters changed to – yip, you guessed it – “liberty sausages”.

The U.S. Government Encouraged Americans to Plant "Victory Gardens"

As part of the war effort, the government rationed foods like sugar, butter, milk, cheese, eggs, coffee, meat and canned goods. Labor and transportation shortages made it hard to harvest and move fruits and vegetables to market. So, the government turned to its citizens and encouraged them to plant "Victory Gardens." They wanted individuals to provide their own fruits and vegetables. Nearly 20 million Americans answered the call. They planted gardens in backyards, empty lots and even city rooftops. Neighbors pooled their resources, planted different kinds of foods and formed cooperatives, all in the name of patriotism.

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dgrimm60

PKHRAUSE   

I  did  not  know  that   Steve Jobs   worked at  ATARI===== I did  not  know that  Bill Gates  was  fired  from ATARI===

dgrimm60

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  plastic  surgery and blood transfusions were  introduced  during  WW 1=====

dgrimm60

 

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5 Fascinating Facts About Apple's iPhone

On June 29, 2007, the Apple iPhone went on sale and people lined up to buy it.  Nobody, not even Apple, could predict how the iPhone would change the way we look at phones forever.  Here are 5 fascinating facts about the phone that captivated the country....

Bono Is Hiding in Your iPhone

Well, not the real Bono, but a photo of him is hiding in your iPhone if you open your music function and scroll until you locate the “Artists” icon. The silhouette is that of Bono, U2’s lead singer. Since he was among the first musicians who had all of his music available on iPhone, iPod and iPad early on, it only seems right.

Steve Jobs Made His First iPhone Call to Prank a Coffee Shop

When Steve Jobs introduced his first iPhone, he apparently used it to play a prank in public. He made a phone call to a Starbucks that was nearby and ordered 4,000 lattes. As the audience laughed, he told the astonished person at Starbucks

Purple Was the Codename for the iPhone Project

The project to build the iPhone was a big secret at Apple, and to keep it quiet, only employees inside the company could work on it. Security for the project was extreme, using card readers and multiple security checks, so it was more likely to be kept under wraps until the phone was released. “Purple” was the project’s codename, and the building where it was invented was referred to as the Purple Dorm.

Cisco Made an iPhone First

Cisco wasn’t happy when Apple announced the iPhone because of the name. This is because Cisco had their own iPhone that operated using a VoIP, which let its customers access Skype without using a computer. Their iPhone was launched several weeks before Apple’s announcement. The trademark lawsuit was settled later, and both companies retained the rights to the name iPhone.

Apple Maps Has Improved a Great Deal Since iOS 6

Apple Maps originally had a glitch in it that could have gotten you killed by driving off a bridge. The turn-by-turn directions were to reach the headquarters of Apple in Cupertino, California.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  STEVE JOBS 1st call was a  prank phone  call on  the iPhone====

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Battle of Gettysburg_2

On July 1, 1863, one of the biggest battles of the Civil War between Union and Confederate troops began outside of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Here are 5 facts you may not know about the bloodiest battle ever fought on American soil...

Nine Generals Died at the Battle of Gettysburg

At the battle of Gettysburg, there were 120 generals leading the Union and Confederate troops. Confederate Generals Barksdale, Semmes, Garnett, Pender, Pettigrew and Armistead were killed. Union Generals Zook, Reynolds, Farnsworth, and Weed were killed, along with General Strong Vincent, who was promoted to the rank posthumously.

George Custer Helped to Win the Civil War

Brig. General George A. Custer, the one who ended up being killed at the Battle of the Bighorn in 1876, helped to thwart 6,000 Confederate troops trying to sneak around the area called Cemetery Ridge. Had Confederate troops accomplished this feat, they would have been able to attack Union forces from the east at the same time Picket and his troops were moving in from the west. Eventually, the Confederate cavalry was driven back, which allowed Union troops to shoot down the rebel soldiers that accompanied Pickett.

A 75-Year-Old Gettysburg Citizen Volunteered Alongside the Union Troops.

As the Confederate Army approached town, John Burns, a 75-year-old veteran of the War of 1812 and resident of Gettysburg, grabbed his flintlock musket and volunteered his services to the nearest Union regiment. Though initially greeted with some snickers and snide remarks, Burns proved ready to fight and suffered three wounds on the first day of battle. Though captured by the Confederates, they allowed him to return home to his wife. After the battle, Burns became a local celebrity of sorts and even had a chance to meet President Lincoln. 

In 2014, President Obama Awarded a Medal of Honor to a Fallen Union Soldier.

Since the battle concluded on July 3, 1863, American presidents have awarded 64 Medals of Honor to various soldiers whose service went above and beyond the call of duty at Gettysburg. The most recent recipient, Alonzo Cushing, received his award posthumously from President Obama in 2014. Cushing was just 22 when he was killed defending Cemetery Ridge. Cushing was struck three times — once through the shoulder, a second time in the abdomen, and third fatally in the mouth. Cushing fought through the first two wounds despite an officer ordering him to go to the rear. According to Obama's Medal of Honor Citation, Cushing's efforts killed several Confederates and helped repel Pickett's Charge.

A Body From the Battle Was Found as Late as 1996

The 2,400 residents of Gettysburg had the onerous duty of disposing of almost 7,000 bodies left behind by both armies, which was done hastily due to necessity. It was here at the consecration of the new national cemetery site on November 19, 1863, President Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address, as the stench of death still hung over the area. As late as 1996, a soldier’s remains from the Civil War were found near an area called Railroad Cut; it has not been possible to identify him or say whether he was a Union or Confederate soldier.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I  did not  know that Generals  died  in the  battle===I did not  know that a 75 year old man from GETTYSBURG

fought  along side with the union troops===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Walmart

On July 2, 1962, the first Walmart store (called Wal-Mart Discount City) was opened in Rogers, Arkansas, by Sam Walton and his brother, James. Here are 5 things you never knew about one ofthe world’s largest private employer...

Walmart Was a Success From the Start

Sam Walton, one of the brothers who founded Walmart, started out by buying a Ben Franklin store in Newport, Arkansas in 1945 and made a success of it. He did so well, in fact, that he added 15 more stores by 1962, and he and his brother opened the first Walmart that same year. One of the reasons it was so successful was that the stores were opened in smaller towns and sold American manufactured merchandise that undercut the competition.

There Are Walmart Stores in Other Countries With Different Names

There are a number of Walmart stores in different countries, but you might not know you’re in one by its name. In the United Kingdom, the company operates 385 stores that go under the name Asda. In Costa Rica, their 133 stores are named Pali; and in China, their 311 stores are called either Trust-Mart or Supercenter.

Walmart Has Been Known to Carry Some Really Weird Stuff

While Walmart has always been known to carry at least a little of everything you can imagine, some of the items they sell might be considered just plain weird, such as pickle flavored ice pops or a Christmas ornament shaped like a pickle that yodels. For the hunters in the family, there are garden gnomes dressed in camo, talking keychains and camo jackets for your dog decorated with "Duck Dynasty." Your life at home would not be complete without sunglasses with a built-in bottle opener, leopard printed duct tape or an alligator paper towel holder.

Sam Walton’s Daughter is the World’s Richest Woman

Sam Walton has three living children, two sons and a daughter named Alice. They are the 11th, 12th and 13th richest Americans in the country. Alice Walton is the worlds’ richest woman and was worth $38.2 billion in 2017, as reported by Forbes.

The Best Selling Item in Walmart May Surprise You

A spokesperson for Walmart reported that bananas had been the top seller at Walmart stores for many years. Shoppers purchase about 1 billion pounds of the tasty fruit each year from Walmart stores around the world. That comes out to customers purchasing 32 pounds each second -- that’s a lot of bananas.

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Back to the Future_2

On July 3, 1985, "Back to the Future" was released to theaters and became the highest grossing film of the year. Here are 5 surprising facts you probably didn't know about everybody's favorite time travel movie...

The Studio Wanted to Call the Film, Spaceman from Pluto.

Co-creator Bob Gale had to shop the Back to the Future script for quite a while before getting a bite from Universal Pictures (Gale claims he was rejected more than 40 times). And the studio was understandably concerned about certain aspects of the movie—namely that one scene with Marty and his mom in the back of the car and the film's title. Executives had seen a trail of recent time-travel movie flops and were concerned Zemeckis's film would suffer the same fate, so they suggested an alternate name: Spaceman from Pluto. Executive producer Steven Spielberg quite literally laughed in their face about it.

Michael J. Fox Almost Wasn't Marty McFly

It's hard to imagine anyone but Fox playing the film's protagonist, but Robert Zemeckis almost had no choice. Though his original choice was Fox for the role, the actor's obligations to his popular television show, Family Ties, got in the way of scheduling. Zemeckis then hired Eric Stoltz for the role, but quickly realized he'd made a huge mistake. Stoltz was an accomplished young actor, but he didn't quite have the comedic chops needed to capture McFly. You can still see Stoltz’s arm in a fight scene with “Biff” Tannen. The studio eventually negotiated a contract for Fox with Family Ties, and the rest is history.

The DeLorean in the Film Could Have Been a Refrigerator

The original draft of the movie was much different from the finished product. Originally, the time travel machine was described as a refrigerator and Doc Brown was a professor that bootlegged movies. After discussing it, Zemeckis and Speilberg agreed that using a refrigerator might encourage children to act out the movie, and this would have been dangerous. They scrapped the refrigerator idea for a DeLorean, which looked space age with its gull doors. However, about 25 years later, Indiana Jones climbed into a refrigerator to escape a nuclear blast in “Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.”

The Dog, Einstein, Was Originally Supposed to Be a Chimp

The original movie script called for Professor (later changed to Doc) Brown to have a pet chimpanzee called Shemp, not a dog named Einstein. The head of Universal, Sid Sheinberg, nixed the idea, saying that movies with chimps in them didn’t make any money. Although Clint Eastwood had made a hit movie that co-starred an orangutan, Sheinberg seemed to think that wasn’t the same thing as using a chimp, so they went with a dog.

Chuck Berry Played Hard To Get

The script called for Marty McFly to pick up a guitar at the school dance and invent rock'n'roll by playing Johnny B Goode. But it was written without Berry's permission, and the rocker kept Zemeckis and Gale waiting until the day of filming to give them the go-ahead. The $50,000 check they agreed to write possibly helped.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  THE UNITED  KINGDOM ===CHINA--COSTA  RICA has Walmart's    by other names===

dgrimm60

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PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that MICHAEL J FOX  was not the  original part for the movie ===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Independence Day

On July 4, 1776, the American colonies were declared free of British rule by the Second Continental Congress with the passage of the Declaration of Independence. Here are 5 things you didn't know about Independence Day...

Independence Day May Have Been Meant to Be Celebrated on July 2

The Second Continental Congress agreed to a motion made by Richard Henry Lee, which called for the independence of the 13 colonies from Great Britain. Although the Congress did not approve the Declaration until two days later on July 4th, this may not have been the date the Founding Fathers were thinking of as one of celebration. In a letter that John Adams wrote on July 3, 1777, to Abigail, his wife, he said that “The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America.”

Three American Presidents Died on Independence Day

James Monroe, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams all passed away on the 4th, and Jefferson and Adams passed away within a few hours of each other in 1826. Their deaths occurred 50 years after the date that the Second Continental Congress passed the Declaration. America’s fifth president, James Monroe, passed away on the same day five years later.

The Liberty Bell Did Not Ring on July 4, 1776

Although Congress passed the Declaration of Independence on July 2nd and it is formally celebrated on the 4th, the Liberty Bell did not ring out to announce it until July 8th. This is because the document had been sent to the printers after its passage so that it could be distributed. The Liberty Bell rang out in celebration of America’s independence as it was read aloud to Philadelphia citizens.

Fireworks Have Been a 4th of July Tradition Since 1777

In the city of Philadelphia in 1777, a cannon was fired 13 times to represent the 13 American colonies, and the city celebrated on the city commons that night by firing off 13 fireworks. Since then, the celebration has grown around the country with everything from spectacular fireworks displays to children waving sparklers in their front yards. In 1934, the 4th was even celebrated in Antarctica when an explorer set off a fireworks display even though the temperature was -33 degrees Fahrenheit.

During World War II, the Declaration Was Stashed Safely Away at Fort Knox.

During World War II, the Declaration Was Stashed Safely Away at Fort Knox.Following the deadly attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese, the Declaration, along with the U.S. Constitution, was removed from Washington, D.C. for safety. The two documents traveled with a contingent of armed guards and were packed in special padlocked containers that were lead sealed and put into an even larger box. With additional protection supplied by the Secret Service, the documents were taken by train to Louisville, Kentucky, and escorted by 13th Armored Division cavalry troops to Fort Knox.

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Dolly the Sheep

On this day in 1996, Dolly the sheep—the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell, was born at the Roslin Institute in Scotland. Here are 5 things you didn't know about Dolly the sheep...

The Sheep Was Named After a Country Singer

Professor Sir Ian Wilmut, who was the embryologist that led the science team that cloned Dolly; in fact, he was the one who suggested the name. He believed that Dolly Parton, who was the singer of such famous country songs as “I Will Always Love You” was a fitting name because the sheep had been made using cells from a mammary gland. He thought it would be difficult to think of mammary glands that were more impressive than those of Dolly Parton.

She Wasn’t the First Cloned Mammal

Cloning produces an organism that is identical to another genetically, and it is a common way to reproduce among plants, bacteria or insects that reproduce asexually. Cloning had been conducted before and included experiments using sheep, cows and mice, but those were cloned from embryo DNA, not from adult DNA. Debbie was the first time DNA from an adult animal had been used.

Dolly Was Introduced to a Ram and Gave Birth to Healthy Lambs

Dolly was mated with a ram and had six lambs over the years. Bonnie was the first and was born in 1998; Rosie and Sally were born the next year; and a set of triplets named Cotton, Lucy and Darcy were born a year later. No evidence of problems with her lambs was found even though their mother had been a cloned sheep.

Dolly Did Not Die Early Because She Was Cloned

Although a sheep of the same breed as Dolly would normally live 10 or 11 years, Dolly developed severe arthritis and lung cancer and was euthanized in early 2003 at age 6 1/2. Since the cells she was cloned from came from an adult sheep that was six, there was some concern that it might affect the clone’s lifespan. However, thirteen additional sheep were cloned using the same cell batch that Dolly came from and developed normally without signs of illness.

The Sheep Is on Display at a Museum

Dolly was stuffed and mounted and is now a popular exhibit in Edinburgh at the National Museum of Scotland. Current research by The Roslin Institute is displayed at the exhibit, along with an interactive section on the creation of transgenic animals.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I   did  not  know  that in  1934 that fire works  was  set off  at ANTARCTICA====

dgrimm60

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know that the sheep  was  named  after  DOLLY PARTON===I  did  not  know

that DOLLY the  sheep  was  mated  with a  RAM and had  6 baby lambs

dgrimm60

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phkrause

5 Things You Didn't Know About Forrest Gump

On July 6, 1994, the film Forrest Gump opened to great acclaim. Based on a book that had been released a decade earlier, Forrest Gump told the story of a boy who ended up becoming involved in some of the more intense moments of U.S. history. Here are five things you didn't know about Forrest Gump...

The Film Made Tom Hanks the Second Actor to Win Back-to-Back Oscars

It's not that unusual for an actor to win multiple Academy Awards over an entire career. However, it's not that easy to win those awards in the Best Actor category two years in a row. Not only does your performance have to be worth it, but you also have to win over not just one group of terrific actors, but two groups of terrific actors. Hanks won the Best Actor Oscar for Forrest Gump a year after winning the Best Actor Oscar for Philadelphia. The only actor to do that before Hanks was Spencer Tracy in 1937 and 1938. There have been other actors who won consecutive awards for other categories, such as Jason Robards (1976, 1977) in the Supporting Actor category, and Luise Rainer (1936, 1937) and Katherine Hepburn (1967, 1968) in the Best Actress category.

The Film Became a Darling of the Conservative Movement

Forrest Gump's depiction of abusive hippies and violent Black Panthers, and its implication that promiscuous women will be punished with disease, gave many viewers the impression that the film was championing conservative values. While many fans still watch the film because they like the homey, comforting quality of many of the scenes, the film also became a darling of the growing conservative movement that was in the process of winning over voters (remember, 1994 was the year of Newt Gingrich's "Contract With America").

The Film Spawned a Restaurant Franchise

If you had ever wondered if the Bubba Gump Shrimp Company restaurants you'd see around town had any link to the movie, yes, they were directly linked. (That may sound obvious to those who have seen the film, but believe it or not, many people never saw the movie and thus did not know about Forrest's shrimp business.) The restaurant was founded by Viacom Consumer Products a couple of years after the film's release, eventually becoming a worldwide chain. In 2010, however, Landry's bought the chain, so while each restaurant still has the name and references to the movie, it's no longer that directly affiliated with the movie studio itself.

Co-star Gary Sinise Became Involved in Military Veteran Charity Work Because of the Film

Sinise played Lt. Dan Taylor in the movie, a character who ultimately lost his legs in Vietnam and who goes on to work at that shrimp restaurant with Forrest. As a result of Sinise's portrayal of the character, the charity Disabled American Veterans asked Sinise to accept an award at an event just a few weeks after the movie opened. Since then, Sinise has remained a staunch supporter of veterans, including starting a foundation dedicated to helping military members, veterans, and their families.

Forrest's Interactions With the "Real World" Continued in a Self-Referential Book Sequel

The movie Forrest Gump was based on a book by Winston Groom, and the movie was known for its special effects that inserted Tom Hanks' character into scenes with famous people. In 1995, Groom came back with a sequel, Gump & Co., that took the blending of reality and fiction even further. In the book, the movie Forrest Gump is treated as an actual biographical film that was made of Forrest's life and even starts out with the advice never to let people turn your life into a movie. 

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