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5 Things You Didn't Know about the First Moon Landing_2

On July 20, 1969, Astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon, and 19 minutes later, Buzz Aldrin joined him. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of this landmark event, here are five little known facts about the first moon landing...

If the Mission Went Wrong, the Astronauts Had a Plan to Care for Their Families

Many people carry life insurance policies but purchasing one to insure an astronaut would probably cost a great deal, so the Apollo 11 astronauts came up with a plan to take care of their families if the mission went wrong. All three were sitting in pre-launch quarantine when they signed their autographs hundreds of times and put a trusted friend in charge of them. If the worst happened, the friend was supposed to send the autographs to each of the astronauts’ families, so they could make money by selling them.

That First Step by Neil Armstrong Was More of a Leap

Astronaut Neil Armstrong gave out his famous words saying that it was a small step for man and a giant leap for mankind, but he might have not been talking figuratively. The lunar module landed genty, which meant the shock absorbers did not compress. When Armstrong stepped out the door onto the surface of the Moon, it was more of a jump of four feet down to land on the Moon’s surface, instead of a step.

The Astronauts Went Into Quarantine After Their Visit to the Moon

Since scientists did not know if there was life on the Moon, the astronauts from Apollo 11 had to go into quarantine for 21 days upon their return to guard against Moon diseases. They put on isolation garments that were passed to them from the divers after the capsule landed, were washed with a solution of sodium hypochlorite and the Columbia was wiped down with Betadine to remove any dust from the Moon. Then they were lowered by helicopter to the quarantine facility, which happened to be an Airstream trailer.

The Flag Planted on the Moon Is the Only One Not Still Standing

Flags were planted on the Moon by astronauts from Apollo 11 and 12 as well as 14 through 17, but only five of the flags are still standing. The flag planted by the Apollo 11 astronauts was knocked down when the astronauts left the Moon’s surface to go back to the command module. Astronaut Buzz Aldrin was looking out the window as the launch away from the Moon’s surface began and saw the flag blasted away.

The President Had a Speech Prepared in Case of a Disaster

Richard Nixon was president at the time of the Apollo II moon landing, and everyone was aware that the mission might go wrong and the astronauts possibly would not return, so he had a speech ready in case a tragedy happened. The speech touched on the men’s bravery, how they would be mourned and how others would follow them into space. General Eisenhower also wrote a speech in the event the D-Day invasion wasn’t successful, but fortunately, neither man had to read these speeches.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did not  know  about  the 3 men signed  autographs so  their families could sell them  for money

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About John Dillinger_2

On July 22, 1934, notorious bank robber John Dillinger was gunned down in front of a movie theater in Chicago. Here are 5 things you didn't know about "Public Enemy No. 1."

The Justice System May Have Accelerated His Introduction to Organized Crime.

In 1924, Dillinger tried to rob a grocery store owner with the help of his (Dillinger's) partner, Edgar Singleton. Dillinger and the grocer ended up in a physical altercation that resulted in the gun discharging and Dillinger running away. Dillinger couldn't find Singleton and the getaway car, but police quickly found Dillinger. In court, Dillinger pleaded guilty because the prosecutor mentioned that doing so might get him a more lenient sentence, but the opposite happened: The judge gave him a minimum of 10 years in prison. 

It was there, in prison, that Dillinger met the men who would teach him how to really rob banks and other establishments with detailed planning, and who brought Dillinger into one of the most organized robbery gangs ever known. While Dillinger was certainly not a saint before his prison time, that long sentence may have allowed him to become more deeply involved with organized crime, as opposed to smaller and more localized robberies, than if he had been set free earlier.

He Was Actually a Good Employee and a Baseball Player Before His First Conviction.

Despite scrapes with the law and a reputation for being rebellious as a teen, Dillinger managed to gain a reputation as a good employee. He had left school early because it bored him, and he preferred to make money through manufacturing and machining jobs, at which he excelled. He was so dedicated to these jobs that at one point, he was commuting 18 miles one way from a farm his father had retired to, to reach work. Later, Dillinger became a baseball player in Indiana (this after a car theft went wrong, forcing him to join the Navy, from which he went AWOL), and it was on that team that he met Singleton.

His Gang Had Strict Rules That Included Limiting Alcohol and Drug Use.

After Dillinger's sentencing, he was introduced to various gang members that he later helped spring from prison. Among these was a man named Harry Pierpont. After a series of breakouts and re-incarcerations, Dillinger, Pierpont, and others formed a highly organized bank robbery gang (usually known as the Pierpont Gang) that had strict rules governing the behavior of its members. 

Rather than living flashy lives, the men stayed low-key, including limiting alcohol use. The gang's rules included the stipulation that any heist had to be done while completely sober, and using alcohol or drugs before or during the heists could get a member kicked out of the gang. It worked; the gang carried out some of the more creative heists of the time, including robbing a bank real-time in full view of onlookers while pretending to be a movie crew scouting the bank for a robbery scene in a film.

Dillinger Managed to Escape a Supposedly Inescapable Prison.

In 1934, the gang went to Arizona, but a hotel fire managed to blow their cover. Police arrested the gang, including Dillinger, who had arrived after the fire occurred. While awaiting trial, Dillinger was sent to Crown Point Prison, which was supposed to be inescapable. But, much like the unsinkable Titanic proved to be sinkable, the inescapable prison proved to have some faults of its own. Dillinger managed to get out on his own without harming anyone.

He Had His Fingerprints Chemically Burned Off.

It sounds like something out of a B movie, but Dillinger tried to hide his identity by not only having plastic surgery, but also having his fingerprints removed through chemical burns. Unfortunately, the surgery didn't do anything to really change how he looked other than change a few superficial features like removing moles and filling in a chin cleft. 

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Miss America Pageant

On July 23, 1984, Vanessa Williams resigned from her post as Miss America after Penthouse magazine said it would publish nude photos of the beauty queen. Here are 5 things you didn't know about the Miss America pageant...

The Pageant Has Apologized to Vanessa Williams.

While Vanessa Williams was initially vilified after she resigned from her post as Miss America, she managed to rebound into a successful and long-lasting acting and singing career. In 2015, pageant organizers asked her to return to the Miss America stage as a judge -- which she did, graciously -- but there was a surprise in store. The CEO of the pageant, Sam Haskell, publicly addressed Williams' resignation and apologized to her and her mother in front of the audience and live on TV. 

While the apology was well-received overall, Suzette Charles, the woman who gained the 1984 Miss America title after Williams resigned, noted that she thought the apology was more about ratings. However, Charles was clear about her support for Williams, complimenting her talent and her ability to build such a successful career.

The First Miss America Was a Teenager.

When the pageant first started, it wasn't called Miss America -- the winner was "The Most Beautiful Bathing Girl in America." The first winner was a 16-year-old named Margaret Gorman, and she wasn't called Miss America until the next contest. The award at the first pageant wasn't a scholarship or sponsorships like you see today; Gorman got a trophy called a Golden Mermaid.

A Promotional Dispute Led to the Creation of a Rival Pageant.

When the title of Miss America 1951 went to Yolanda Betbeze, organizers expected her to help promote a swimwear brand that helped sponsor the contest. However, Betbeze protested and refused, saying she was not a model and that she was a singer. The swimwear brand, Catalina, became unhappy (understandably) with the Miss America pageant and broke away to create the Miss USA pageant, which still runs annually.

Pageant Officials Tried to Hide the Fact That Bess Meyerson Was Jewish.

Bess Myerson won the Miss America title in 1945. She was the first -- and so far the only -- Jewish winner. At the time, the country was just finding out about what had really happened in the concentration camps run by the Nazis, so Myerson's win seemed like an appropriate rebuke of the Nazis' treatment of Jews. However, pageant organizers initially tried to get Myerson to hide the fact that she was Jewish, such as through changing her name. 

Myerson didn't play along and insisted that she compete under her own name, stating that if she won, she wanted everyone in her apartment building to know whose daughter it was who won the title. Unfortunately, Myerson's win was muted by an unwillingness on some sponsors' parts to work with her. She went on to become a lecturer and consumer rights advocate who created some of the most intense consumer rights reforms in the country.

Early Miss America Pageants Allowed Larger Cities Like Chicago to Have Their Own Contestants.

In the first couple of decades of the pageant, it wasn't unusual to see contestants from large cities like Chicago and New York competing as representatives from those cities, and not the states. So you would see both Miss Chicago and Miss Illinois. The pageant eliminated these positions along with the Miss Washington D.C. position, although Miss D.C. was added back later on.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did not  know that the 1st  winner  of the pageant  was  a  teenager====

dgrimm60

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phkrause

5 Things You Didn't Know about Machu Picchu _2

On July 24, 1911, Yale archeologist Hiram Bingham became the first to officially "discover" Machu Picchu,  an ancient Inca settlement in the Andes Mountains in Peru.  Here are 5 fascinating facts you probably didn't know about this historic landmark...

Machu Picchu May Have Been a Summer Residence

To reach Machu Picchu, Bingham traveled to the ruins at the top of a mountain that the natives called “Old Peak” in Quechua in search of Inca ruins. He was led by an 11-year-old boy after a farmer living in Urubamba Valley told him about the location, which was high on an 8,000-foot high mountain. Because of its hidden location, it is believed that the Incas spent their summers there since climbing up to it would have been difficult on a regular basis.

The Incas Were Amazing Stonemasons

The Incas were master stonemasons, building their temples without the use of mortar and using bronze tools and stone chisels. Some of the stone blocks in the buildings are cut so precisely that a knife blade cannot be fit between the blocks. During the big earthquakes that occurred in 1650 and 1950, the stones shook but did not fall or crack; however, the churches built by the Spanish were heavily damaged, which shows how masterful the Inca stonemasons were.

The Explorer Who Discovered Machu Picchu Thought It Was a Different City

The Inca civilization was mostly wiped out during the 16th century by Spanish invaders, and Bingham, who was untrained as an archaeologist, was searching for the Incas' last capital. Although he did locate the last capital, named Vilcabamba, he did not recognize it as such and thought Machu Picchu was the site he was seeking. However, it was determined that Machu Picchu had only been inhabited for around 100 years before the Incas abandoned it.

Astronomy Was Important to the Incas

The religion of the Incas is complex, but it is known that it linked closely to astronomy by the orientation of the buildings. Buildings in the 80,000 square foot complex, including plazas, homes and palaces, are aligned with different astronomical events. The Incas also assigned a star of protection to every living thing, named the constellations and believed that the large black areas in the night sky were animals.

A Hidden Door at Machu Picchu May Lead to an Incan Ruler

In 2014, a secret chamber was found in the Temple of the Sun by French explorer Thierry Jamin; he believes it may be the burial chamber of an Incan ruler. Examination using electromagnetic equipment shows that there is a chamber behind that door. However, so far the Peruvian government has denied scientists the ability to explore further.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  about the secret chamber found in the Temple====

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Marilyn Monroe's Death_2

On August 5, 1962, Marilyn Monroe was found dead, sprawled across her bed with empty prescription bottles nearby. As with other famous deaths, Monroe's soon became subject to varying theories, and her popularity has only grown. Here are five things you didn't know about Marilyn Monroe's death...

The Last Person She Called Was Peter Lawford

Peter Lawford, brother-in-law to Jack, Bobby and Teddy Kennedy and husband to their sister, Pat, was the last person Monroe spoke to before her untimely death. After the news of her death came out, Lawford said that he regretted that he hadn’t gone to see her at her home after their conversation. He told investigators that she sounded as though she had taken some type of drug by the slurred voice and that she seemed depressed.

Her Housekeeper Discovered the Body

About 3:30 in the morning, Monroe’s housekeeper, Eunice Murray, said she saw that a light was on in the bedroom of the actress and phoned Dr. Ralph Greenson, who was the star’s psychologist, along with her personal physician. Monroe's body was discovered by Dr. Greenson, who arrived at the house around 10 minutes after the call, and she was pronounced dead by her personal physician shortly afterward. The cause of death listed in the coroner’s report was barbiturate poisoning and overdose as well as probable suicide.

Speculation on the Cause of Death Included the Kennedy Brothers

Speculation that Monroe was having an affair with President John F. Kennedy arose in 1962 when she appeared on stage to sing “Happy Birthday” to him at Madison Square Garden. Later it was discovered that both Monroe and Kennedy were staying in Palm Springs as guests of crooner Bing Crosby. Another rumor was that Monroe had been carrying on a long-term affair with the president’s brother, Bobby Kennedy, who was the Attorney General, and allegations were that she was killed to cover up those affairs.

Controversy Surrounding Her Death

Monroe had attempted suicide several times before and was said by physicians to have suffered from anxiety and depression. The county coroner, Thomas Naguchi, ruled that she had most likely taken her own life. There were enough conspiracy theories about her death that a threshold investigation was conducted by the LA County District Attorney’s Office into the allegations. However, no evidence turned up that foul play had been involved in the death of the popular screen star.

Her Funeral Was a Private Affair

Monroe’s second husband, Joe DiMaggio, took care of the funeral arrangements and limited attendees to close friends and family. Police were present to keep gawkers and news reporters at a distance. Her body was interred at Westwood Village Memorial Park cemetery in Los Angeles. DiMaggio had roses delivered to Monroe’s resting place regularly for the next 20 years, and his last words were that he would finally get to see Marilyn.

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Lucille Ball_4

Lucille Ball was born on August 6, 1911. One of America's most beloved comedians, Lucille Ball is particularly known for her iconic television show 'I Love Lucy.' Here are five things you didn't know about Lucille Ball...

I Love Lucy Featured the First Interracial Couple on TV

Much has been made over Star Trek's interracial kiss, but the true trailblazers were Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. Back in 1951, Ball and Arnaz formed the first interracial couple on U.S. TV. Ball was initially told not to include Arnaz because viewers supposedly wouldn't support a white woman married to a Cuban man. However, Ball was adamant that Arnaz play Ricky Ricardo, issuing a both-of-us-or-none-of-us ultimatim. Ball and Arnaz got their show — and no one really cared about ethnicity or race. Other than gentle ribbing about language issues or in-laws, the show presented Lucy and Ricky Ricardo as your almost-average couple, and viewers adored them. Fun fact: Star Trek was produced by Desilu — Ball and Arnaz's own production company.

Ball Got Involved in TV Because She Couldn't Break out of B Movies

Ball had some illustrious co-stars in her early days, including Katharine Hepburn. But overall, Ball was stuck in B movies, even earning the nickname, "Queen of the Bs." Because she had such a hard time advancing in film, she and Arnaz turned to television to try to make their mark. They turned out to be, of course, a wild success.

More Than 1 Million Viewers Sent Gifts When Ball/Ricardo Gave Birth

Ball's real-life and televised pregnancy and broadcast-day-of-delivery birth are rightfully known as ground-breaking events in television. The reaction was just as awesome; when Ball gave birth to Desi Arnaz Jr., whose counterpart on the show became Little Ricky, viewers sent in gifts galore — almost 1 million viewers, that is. It certainly sounds like people weren't offended in the least by Ball including her pregnancy on her show in an era when pregnancy was typically hushed up on TV.

Ball Became a Mentor to Carol Burnett

Lucille Ball and comedian Carol Burnett first met in the late 1950s, starting a mentor- and friendship that lasted for the rest of Ball's life. The two hit it off immediately, with Ball even once saying that if Burnett needed anything to call her — and then Burnett found out she needed to get a big name to guest on a TV special she wanted to host. Ball died on April 26, 1989, which was also Burnett's birthday, and Burnett has noted that she received flowers from Ball that very day.

Ball Hated All in the Family but Was a Fan of M*A*S*H and Other Sitcoms

Ball was a trailblazer, no doubt, but she also had her limits. When All in the Family debuted with foul-mouthed (but ultimately good-hearted) Archie Bunker, Ball was aghast. She was distressed by his character and the spread of his unfortunate language choices to children who tried to imitate his character. Ball much preferred less "offensive" (but just as ground-breaking) comedy, including M*A*S*H and Cheers.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I  did not know that the  last  person  she talked to  on the phone was  Peter  Lawford===

dgrimm60

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I did  not know  that  LUCILLE BALL and CAROL BURNETT were  very  close  friends===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Purple Heart_2

On August 7, 1782, General George Washington, the commander in chief of the Continental Army, created the “Badge for Military Merit,” otherwise known as a “Purple Heart.” Now considered one of the most honorable military awards to receive, it was once a fairly obscure award. Here are five things you didn't know about the Purple Heart...

The Original Purple Heart Was a Cloth Patch

The current design of the Purple Heart falls in line with other military awards, with a purple and gold ribbon that is pinned to the uniform, and a metal heart with a gold-colored likeness of George Washington. Originally, it was a purple cloth heart, first plain and later embroidered with the word "Merit" in white. The medal was redesigned in the 1930s.

The Original Purple Heart Wasn't Known as the Purple Heart

Much of what we think of when we think of the Purple Heart is based on that redesign from the 1930s. The award wasn't even known as the Purple Heart when it was created; back then, it was a "Badge of Merit," created along with a "Badge of Distinction." This is understandable; when creating the award, Washington likely wanted the purpose of the award to be front and center in people's minds, and so he used names that described the reasons for having the award. The Badge of Merit wasn't awarded easily, and not many people received it in the century and a half before General Douglas MacArthur decided to revive it.

A Lot of Actors, Authors, and Other Famous Creatives Have Received a Purple Heart

Many of the actors and authors you grew up watching and reading had past military service, especially if they served in WWII or Korea. Rod Serling of Twilight Zone fame received one; so did Charles Bronson and James Garner. Kurt Vonnegut was another recipient. The Purple Heart is still awarded, of course, so veterans of more recent wars, such as the Gulf War and Afghanistan, are eligible. Recipients include Senator Tammy Duckworth and football player Pat Tillman.

A Person Can (and Has) Receive Multiple Purple Hearts for the Same Incident

While it's common to see someone awarded the Purple Heart for their actions during a particular conflict, it's also possible for them to receive multiple awards for the same incident. One example is Curry T. Haynes, a veteran of the Vietnam War. He had already been awarded one Purple Heart for an arm injury (he was shot during an ambush), and when he returned to the front, he was involved in another assault that led to several injuries at once. For that, he was awarded nine separate Purple Hearts in addition to the one from his first injury, making him the only person to hold ten Purple Hearts.

Eligibility for the Award Has Changed Several Times in Less Than a Century

The Badges of Merit and Distinction were created to recognize acts of bravery in war that usually went unnoticed by anyone outside the military. They retained that purpose until 1932, when MacArthur added being wounded during battle to the list of reasons to give the Purple Heart to someone. In 1942, the award was restricted to only wounds or deaths in battle; in the 1950s, frostbite was eliminated as a reason to receive the award. In 1984, injury due to terrorism was added as an eligible reason, and in 1989, prisoners of war became eligible. In the 2000s, traumatic brain injury and PTSD have become the latest conditions to face questions over eligibility. 

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PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that  the 1st  purple heart  was  made  out  of  cloth----

dgrimm60

 

 

 

 

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Richard Nixon

On the evening of August 8, 1974, Richard M. Nixon went on national television to announce that he would step down from the nation's highest office the following day at noon, thus becoming the first U.S. president in history to quit the White House. Here are 5 things you didn't know about the president that some nicknamed “Tricky Dick.”

His Religion Was Quaker

Nixon’s mother was a Quaker, which is an old religion that promotes spiritual equality and pacifism. When his father, Frank, married Hannah Milhous, their children were reared in the Quaker religion. Although he was exempt from serving in the military, Nixon entered the Navy during World War II. As he faced impeachment proceedings as a result of Watergate, the Quakers from Minneapolis and Milwaukee sent a petition months earlier asking that he be removed from office.

Nixon Could Have Attended Harvard University

Nixon declined an opportunity to attend Harvard University because his family needed him at home. However, as a law student, he was outstanding. Following his graduation from Whittier College, he went to Duke University law school on a full scholarship and graduated third among his classmates.

He Lost a Chance at Being an FBI Agent Due to Budget Cuts

Nixon applied for a job with the FBI in 1937 at age 24. He was accepted but never heard anything back from the agency. He was given a physical and in-person interview, but all he did was wait. After Nixon was serving as vice president under Dwight Eisenhower, he asked the director of the FBI, Herbert Hoover, what had happened and was told that budget cuts were the reason the agency never called him back.

His Dog, Checkers, Helped Him in his Political Career

In 1952, President Eisenhower was thinking of finding another running mate to be vice-president because allegations were being made that Nixon was using money from his supporters to supplement his expenses. Nixon went on television and the radio to talk about this issue and began speaking about how much his little girl loved Checkers, a Cocker Spaniel that had been a gift from a campaign supporter. He won over public sentiment because many thought that a dog lover could not be a bad human being, and his statement became known as his “Checkers speech.”

Nixon Was a Surprisingly Musical Fellow

Although Nixon never learned to read sheet music, he could play five different instruments. His mother signed him up for piano lessons as a boy, and he practiced daily. As a young teen, he studied piano under his aunt in Indianapolis. In addition to piano, Nixon could play the violin, accordion, saxophone and clarinet.

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PHKRAUSE

I did no  know  that  he  could play 5 musical  instruments=====

dgrimm60

 

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5 Facts About The Bombing on Nagasaki & Hiroshima

On August 9, 1945, the United States detonated a nuclear device over Nagasaki effectively bringing the war with Japan to an end. Here are 5 things you didn't know about an attack that ended the Pacific portion of World War II.

The Original Target Was Not Nagasaki

A target committee was established to organize and execute the bombings. The Japanese cities that were included on the list of potential targets were Hiroshima, Yokahama, Kokura, Niigata and Kyoto. The list was changed slightly by Henry L. Stimson, the secretary of war, because he and his wife had honeymooned at Kyoto. He was insistent that it be removed from the list of potential targets. Instead, the city of Nagasaki took its place.

The Movie, The Maltese Falcon, Was the Inspiration for the Code Names

The nicknames given to the atomic bombs were Little Boy, dropped at Hiroshima, and Fat Man, dropped at Nagasaki. Many people don’t know how these names were chosen. The shapes of the bombs and characters in The Maltese Falcon influenced the names. Fat Man was named after Casper Gutman, played by Sydney Greenstreet; and Little Boy was named after Wilmer Cook, who was played by Elisha Cook, Jr.

The Japanese Knew About the Bombers

Japanese radar picked up on American planes just before midnight of the day the Hiroshima bomb was dropped. Air raid sirens sent local residents under cover but nothing happened, so an all-clear warning was sounded. A second warning was issued about an hour before the attack, but the all-clear was given once more. An hour later, Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the Enola Gay.

One Man Survived the Bombings of Both Nagasaki and Hiroshima

One Japanese businessman, Tsutomu Yamaguchi, managed to survive both the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He had gone to Hiroshima on business and was leaving August 6, but had to return for a travel stamp, and ended up being badly burned by the blast of the atomic bomb. He returned to Nagasaki shortly afterward, and he survived that bombing and lived to age 93.

Nagasaki Police Were Saved by Duck and Cover

Following the Hiroshima bombing, some of the survivors went to Nagasaki, a neighboring city. One survivor, a policeman, had seen how those who ducked following the atomic flash had suffered fewer and less serious injuries by the shockwave that followed. It was he who taught the police in Nagasaki how to duck and cover, and no Nagasaki policemen lost their lives when Hiroshima was hit by Fat Man.

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About David Berkowitz

On August 10th, 1977, the police arrested David Berkowitz, better known as the "Son of Sam," the man who killed six people and wounded seven more, claiming he was acting on orders delivered from a dog. Here are 5 things you didn't know about the serial killer who terrified the residents of New York...

Berkowitz Picked Out His Own Nickname

The media or police often give nicknames to serial killers such as John Wayne Gacy, who was called The Killer Clown, but David Berkowitz gave himself his own nickname. At the beginning of his murders, the media was calling him the .44 Killer or the .44 Caliber Killer, which referred to the weapon he used to commit these horrible crimes. Berkowitz first referred to himself as the Son of Sam in a letter he mailed to the New York Police Department, and sections were released to the public, so the media began calling him by the name he had chosen for himself.

The Son of Sam Murdered Six People and Injured Others

The first people targeted by Berkowitz was an unknown female and 15-year-old Michelle Forman. He stabbed both victims, and eventually shot them with a .44 caliber revolver made by Charter Arms. He went on to murder Donna Lauria, age 18; Christine Freund, 26; Virginia Voskerichain, 19; Valentina Suriani, 18; Alexander Esau, 20; and Stacy Moskowitz, 20. In addition, he injured seven persons, most of whom were with one of the other victims at the time.

A Car Led Police to the Killer

Berkowitz shot a minimum of four people after he mailed the letter to police to taunt them, and investigators thought he was connected in some way to a police department because he held his gun the way a policeman would. However, a woman contacted authorities to tell them about someone who had looked at her strangely near one of the murder scenes. One vehicle spotted at the murder scene was a 1970 Ford Galaxie that connected police to Berkowitz. Ammo and weapons were found in his car, along with additional proof that he was the Son of Sam.

He Said the Neighbor’s Dog Made Him Do It

Berkowitz was taken into custody by New York City police homicide detectives in front of his Yonkers apartment building, and he was subsequently indicted for eight shooting incidents.During questioning, Berkowitz claimed that his neighbor's dog was one of the reasons that he killed, stating that the dog demanded the blood of pretty young girls. He said that the "Sam" mentioned in his first letter was his former neighbor Sam Carr. Berkowitz claimed that Carr's black labrador retriever "Harvey" was possessed by an ancient demon and that it issued irresistible commands that Berkowitz must kill people. Despite his explanation, Berkowitz was found mentally competent to stand trial. 

Berkowitz Was Given Six Life Sentences

Berkowitz is incarcerated at Sullivan Correctional Facility, where he has become an Evangelical, changing his nickname from Son of Sam to Son of Hope. Although New York state law mandates that he be given a parole hearing every two years, he sometimes does not attend and has never asked to be released.

ps:Can you imagine if he had access or bought a assault type weapon???

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PHKRAUSE

I did not  know  that he gave himself  the name of  son  of  sam

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Dr. Seuss

On August 12, 1960, the Dr. Seuss book “Green Eggs and Ham” was published. Discover what you didn’t know about Theodor Seuss Geisel, familiarly known to children and adults around the world as Dr. Seuss.

The Popular “Green Eggs and Ham” Was the Result of a Bet

Bennett Cerf, a founder of the publishing company Random House, bet Seuss that he would not be able to write a book that used only 50 different words back in 1960. The amount of the bet was $50, which would have been worth considerably more these days. Dr. Seuss won the bet, of course, but Cerf reportedly never paid him.

Seuss Developed State Fright Because of Teddy Roosevelt

As World War I raged overseas, the young Ted Geisel, 14, became one of ten Boy Scouts who sold the highest amount in war bonds to support the effort and appeared before a huge audience to receive a medal from Theodore Roosevelt. Unfortunately, there were only nine awards, and Roosevelt had run out of them when Geisel stepped up as the last scheduled Boy Scout to receive his. Roosevelt, when the boy faced him, asked what the little boy was doing there, and an embarrassed scoutmaster whisked Geisel off, which gave the lad a permanent case of stage fright.

His First Book Was Rejected by Many Publishers

The first book written by Dr. Seuss, “And to Think I Saw It on Mulberry Street,” ended up being rejected by the 27 publishers he sent it to, and feeling discouraged, the author thought about burning it. While he was walking on his way home, he stopped to speak to Mike McClintock, who had been made the children’s book editor at Vanguard just that morning. The two men went back to his office, and the company purchased the book to publish that day.

Dr. Seuss Didn’t Have a Doctorate Degree

Geisel’s father had wanted him to become a physician, but he was working toward a doctorate of philosophy in English literature at Oxford when he became acquainted with Helen Palmer, his future wife. It was she who encouraged Geisel to draw instead of teaching. Geisel did receive an honorary doctorate in 1956 from Dartmouth, which was his alma mater.

Seuss Created Cartoons for the Army

Geisel was in the army during World War II and was head of the animation department at the First Motion Picture Unit in the Air Force. It was his job to create cartoons used as war propaganda and write promotions films to be used for U.S. troop and the folks at home. Some of the cartoons used as training films had the music provided by Carl Stalling and voices by Mel Blanc, who produced “Looney Tunes.”

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PHKRAUSE

I did not  know that  he  created cartoon and promotional films during WWII=====

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Alfred Hitchcock

On August 13, 1899, movie director Alfred Hitchcock was born in London. As an adult, he became the movie director known as “The Master of Suspense.” Here are 5 things you may not know about the Hollywood director famed for his psychological suspense movies...

Hitchcock Was Known as a Practical Joker

Hitchcock’s practical jokes ran the gamut from whoopie cushions to betting a crewmember that he couldn’t pass an entire night in handcuffs and then secretly dosing him with a laxative beforehand. At a dinner party one night, he surprised guests when they discovered all the different food courses had been dyed a bright blue. Another practical joke he pulled was during the filming of The 39 Steps when he handcuffed Madeline Carroll and Robert Donat together for hours and then pretended the key was lost — eventually, magically discovering it in his coat pocket.

Like Where’s Waldo, Hitchcock Appears in His Movies

Audiences and fans of Hitchcock have enjoyed looking for him over the years in his movies, where he often made inventive cameo appearances. He appeared in 39 movies over the years, and his cameos were so distracting to viewers that he began placing them in the films early on so the audience could relax and enjoy watching the show. In 1944, during the film Lifeboat, there wasn’t much opportunity for Hitchcock to make a cameo appearance, but ever-inventive, he appears in a newspaper ad as the “before” and “after” for “Reducto Obesity Slayer,” a product for weight loss.

He Refused to Cast Jimmy Stewart

Following the release of Vertigo, Hitchcock thought actor Jimmy Stewart was too old, and that was one reason the movie wasn’t more popular, so he swore never to hire Stewart again. When he was casting North By Northwest, Hitchcock didn’t want to tell Stewart that he wouldn’t have the lead, so he waited until the veteran actor had started working on Bell, Book and Candle. This meant Hitchcock could cast Cary Grant as the lead, which is what he wanted from the start.

Hitchcock Fought With Hollywood Censors

Hollywood censors probably didn’t look forward to checking Hitchcock’s movies for restricted content because the great director fought it out with them to get his way. When Hitchcock was filming Psycho, he sent the office of the censors graphic scenes of nudity and violence, so they might be more forgiving of the more subtle scenes he was filming. The censors asked him later to redo the opening of the movie, which they found suggestive, so he invited them to come on the set and instruct him in how to shoot it, but of course, nobody showed up, so he kept the original scene.

Once Psycho Started, Late Moviegoers Were Banned From Entering

Psycho was terrifying, dramatic and completely different from other films of the day, so Hitchcock wanted to ensure that theater viewers got the full effect by watching the movie from its beginning. He tried to purchase all the copies of the novel to keep the ending a secret, barred its stars from giving interviews and even demanded that major theaters not allow people to enter the theaters once the film had started. Signs were even posted saying there would be no admittance after the film started, including for the Queen of England or the President of the United States.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did not  know that he  did not want JIMMY STEWERT to start in  NORTH BY NORTHWEST===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About World War II_3

On August 14, 1945, President Harry S. Truman announced that Japan had unconditionally surrendered to the Allies, ending World War II.  You may know the major details of the war, but here are five things you probably didn't know about World War II.

The U.S. Was Already Sort of Involved With the War Well Before Pearl Harbor Was Attacked

The United States did not join the fighting in World War II until the attack on Pearl Harbor, but the country wasn't exactly neutral and uninvolved before then. The U.S. had started manufacturing equipment for Great Britain after the Neutrality Acts -- laws that stopped the U.S. from aiding warring countries -- were superseded by the Lend-Lease agreement, which did allow for loans or gifts of equipment. The U.S. was also working with Greenland on base construction and troop lodging, ostensibly to protect equipment covered by the Lend-Lease agreement.

The U.S. Joined the Fighting Late Because of a Small Army and Poor Economy

Despite the manufacturing and base construction, the country did not enter the actual fighting until after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Part of the reluctance had to do with the poor state of the U.S. military at the time. It was small and not trained to handle a world war. The government did realize this was a problem and began training more men for potential conflicts in the late 1930s and 1940, even though the country still didn't plan to fight. There was also the question of finances because all that manufacturing was shoring up a weak, Depression-influenced economy. The money went right back into society instead of being funneled toward troops. While many in the government recognized that joining the war was inevitable, many others wanted to preserve the growing economy and prevent the military from being obliterated by larger forces.

Food Rationing Continued in the United States Until 1947 -- and in the UK Until 1954

Both the U.S. and UK rationed goods from food to gas to clothes during World War II. But when the war ended, the rationing didn't end; in fact, much of it became stricter as countries tried to reopen supply lines, rebuild agricultural economies, and feed refugees. Rationing did lessen after a while, with various goods taken off the rationing list as the years went by, but food rationing in the U.S. didn't end completely until 1947, and rationing in the UK didn't fully end until 1954.

Chances Are Japan Was Just About Ready to Surrender Even Before the Bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima

Did you learn in school that the bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima brought a powerful Japan to its knees, forcing a surrender? The bombings were certainly devastating, but the country was already suffering and looking at a potential loss well before those two cities were destroyed. The repeated firebombings of other Japanese cities had destroyed a lot of infrastructure, and there's a theory now that the country was ready to surrender anyway.

Several Cities, and One State, Still Celebrate V-J Day

V-J Day, the day that Japan surrendered, is celebrated as a state holiday called Victory Day in Rhode Island. You can also find local city celebrations around the country, including in Kansas, Indiana, and Connecticut. 

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