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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that  a tortoise had been  named  the oldest tortoise of  187  years and

has  lived though 39  American Presidents==7 British  Monarchs ==the  Russian Revolution==

both  World Wars

dgrimm70

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Martin Luther King Jr.

On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Here are 5 things you didn't know about this widely respected activist and man of peace...

The Only Other American Given a National Holiday Is George Washington

In 1986, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was designated as an official holiday after a bill was first introduced in the House of Representatives in 1968 by Representative John Conyers of Michigan. Each legislative session, the bill was resubmitted, but it took many years before public pressure caused Congress to pass it. Some of the earlier opposition was because of the date chosen, January 15, since it was considered by some to be too close to the holidays.

His First Name Wasn’t Martin

King was named after his father, Reverend Michael King Sr., but both he and his father changed their name to Martin in 1934 after becoming inspired by the 16th-century theologian Martin Luther. Because King was 5 years of age at the time, his family and close friends continued to call him “Mike” throughout the years.

He Was Bright From the Beginning

King first began school when he was 5 years old but had to wait until the next year to enter first grade because he was considered too young. A precocious child, he skipped second grade, along with several other grade levels, including his senior year at high school. At age 15, he entered Morehouse College and earned a degree in sociology.

Dr. King Became a Minister at an Early Age

King first thought about becoming  a lawyer or physician instead of a minister like his father but changed his mind after he studied in a class with the head of the school of Religion at Morehouse College, Dr. George Kelsey.  King changed his mind and decided to enter the ministry, becoming ordained at 19 in the year 1948.

A Sneeze Could Have Cost King His Life in an Earlier Attempt at Assassination

In 1958,  while at a book signing, a 42-year-old woman with paranoid delusions named Izola Ware Curry stabbed King. The weapon she used was a letter opener that was about 7-inches long and came perilously close to a major artery. So close, in fact, that doctors said so much as a sneeze from King before the injury was repaired would have proved fatal.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that MARTIAN  was  not  his  real  name====I did not  know  that  he  skipped  several

grades  in  school===

dgrimm60

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phkrause

5 Things You Didn't Know About Hurricane Katrina_2

On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina slammed into the Gulf Coast, leaving in its wake massive destruction, injuries and fatalities. Here are 5 things you didn’t know about this powerful hurricane that wreaked havoc across the Gulf...

Katrina Was a Record-Setting Hurricane

Hurricane Katrina is listed as the third most deadly in the United States since 1900, and number one as the most deadly in the past 77 years. However, there were two hurricanes that occurred in 1893 that might have resulted in a higher number of fatalities. "Hurricane Ten" of 1893 hit Cheniere Caminada, a barrier island of Louisiana, and resulted in about 2,000 deaths, while "Hurricane Six" killed between 1,000 and 2,000 people when it hit South Carolina and Georgia.

The Hurricane Spawned 43 Tornadoes

Hurricanes sometimes spawn tornadoes, and 43 were reported when Katrina struck. There were 11 reported in Mississippi and 11 in Alabama, while 20 struck Georgia and one hit the Florida Keys. The tornadoes that occurred in Georgia as a result of Hurricane Katrina were the highest number on record for a single day in August.

Hurricane Katrina Resulted in Fatalities in Four States

The number of fatalities resulting from Katrina is estimated at 1,833, according to statistics for five states registering deaths of those who died indirectly or directly because of the storm. Louisiana suffered the highest number with 1,577 deaths, followed by Mississippi with 238, Florida with 14 and Georgia and Alabama with two each. Fatalities directly related to Katrina were estimated at around 1,500 with Louisiana suffering 1,300 fatalities, 200 in Mississippi, 6 in Florida and one fatality in Georgia.

The Financial Cost Was Staggering

Hurricane Katrina has so far been the costliest of America’s hurricanes, costing an estimated $108 billion. This is three times higher than the financial damaged caused in 2008 by Hurricane Ike and four times higher than 1992’s Hurricane Andrew.

New Orleans Has Flooded Six Times Because of Hurricanes

Hurricanes flooded New Orleans in 1915, 1940 and 1947 as well as 1965, 1969 and again in 2005. Around 50 percent of New Orleans is above sea level, but the remainder is below sea level, and it doesn’t help that the city juts out into the water. During the 20th century, seawalls and levees were built by the Army Corps of Engineers to try and prevent flooding; however, some of the levees were not strong enough to withstand the onslaught of Katrina.

ps:So this one says August 29, but the previous one says August 30?? So which one is correct?????

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that  KATRINA was  the  3rd   deadly Hurricane in the United  States

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Thurgood Marshall_2

On this day in 1967, Thurgood Marshall was confirmed as a Supreme Court justice. He was the first African American to serve on the court and had been nominated by President Lyndon Johnson. Here are 5 things you probably didn't know about Thurgood Marshall...

The University of Maryland's Law Library Is Named After Marshall, but Years Earlier, the School Had Turned Him Away Because of His Race.

When Marshall first applied to law school in 1930, he tried to get into the University of Maryland Law School but was turned down because of his race. He went to Howard University Law School instead, and in 1935, managed to sue the University of Maryland in another racial-discrimination case, this time for an African American man named Donald Murray. Marshall won his case, forcing the desegregation of the University of Maryland Law School. The law school's library is now named after Marshall.

He Was the Chief Attorney for the Plaintiffs in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka.

Marshall developed a reputation as a very good lawyer able to pursue civil rights cases with much success. He won the majority of his cases, including the case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka in 1952. The case actually included five separate cases and, at first, didn't look like it would succeed. The case had gone before the Supreme Court, which in 1952 was led by Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson. Vinson felt that a previous ruling from the 1800s known as Plessy should stand; Plessy gave rise to the concept of "separate but equal," which had been sorely abused and used to justify segregation. However, Vinson died in 1953, before the case was decided. His replacement was Earl Warren, who supported Marshall's arguments. The court ruled in favor of Marshall and the plaintiffs in 1955.

He Was Asked By The United Nations and United Kingdom To Help Write The Constitutions of Ghana and Tanzania.

After they won independence from European imperial powers, Ghana and Tanzania were in need of a constitution. The UN and UK asked Thurgood for help – they felt that his success fighting for America’s oppressed minority would help protect the rights of the minority white citizens in those nations. Both constitutions are still in use today.

Marshall's Confirmation Led to Massive Growth in Law School Application Numbers for African Americans.

Marshall's ascent to the Supreme Court really opened the figurative door for the African American community. While African Americans had long applied to law schools before his nomination and confirmation, after 1967 there was a huge spike in applications made by African Americans to law schools across the country.

He Was Voted “Least Likely to Succeed”

Thurgood’s friends describe him as loud and the life of the party. He joined Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, and enjoyed drinking, smoking, and playing cards.  After joining the Alpha Phi Alphas, Marshall reveled in fraternity life. He pulled wild pranks on other students and was expelled for a short while when one went too far.  His wild and boisterous behavior gave him the reputation as 'apparently the least likely to succeed' among his classmates. But Marshall turned his studies around quickly. He had a knack for debate, shined as an orator, and was known for his energetic football rally speeches.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that  he  help  write constitutions  for the  countries of  GHANA  and  TANZANIA===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About Princess Diana

On Aug. 31, 1997, Britain's Princess Diana died in a car crash in Paris at age 36. Her boyfriend, the Egyptian-born socialite Dodi Fayed, and the driver of the car, Henri Paul, died as well. Here are 5 things you didn't know about "The People’s Princess"...

Diana Was the First Royal to Have a Non-Custom Wedding Ring.

Before Diana and Charles got married, engagement rings in the royal household were custom-made, created specifically for the person receiving the ring. Diana's ring came from a catalog; in other words, it was not custom-made, and it was common. This raised more of a stink than you'd think it was worth. The ring was beautiful, but because it wasn't a rare work of art, there were those in the household who thought it an inappropriate choice. That attitude didn't last long; the ring is now Kate Middleton's wedding ring, presented to her by Prince William, who has said it was a way to ensure Diana didn't miss out on his wedding.

Her Grandmother Was Part of the Royal Household and Central to a Family Feud.

Diana's grandmother, Lady Ruth Fermoy, used to be a lady-in-waiting to the Queen Mother. She was also the person to give key testimony against Diana's mother (Fermoy's own daughter -- not her daughter-in-law) in a custody battle when Diana was a child, and she often sided with the royal household against Diana herself when Diana and Charles divorced. Diana was quoted as saying her grandmother "has done a real hatchet job" on her mother in terms of royal reputation.

Diana Was the First Royal to Omit the "Obey" Portion of Her Wedding Vows.

Wedding vows used to contain a phrase about women obeying their husbands, and even before the 1980s this phrase, understandably, had already started falling out of favor with women. Diana was the first British royal to dump the phrase, however, because one simply did not interfere with royal tradition, at least until she showed up. Diana and Charles purposefully omitted the word and brought the royals in line with most of society; Kate Middleton, Meghan Markle, and Princess Eugenie all omitted "obey" from their vows as well.

She Was Related to Humphrey Bogart.

It's not that unusual to find actors related to royalty, but Diana had some rather close celeb relatives. Perhaps the most well-known is Humphrey Bogart, a seventh cousin, but she was also related to Rudolph Valentino and Lillian Gish. One of her closer relatives is actor Oliver Platt, whose great-grandmother was Diana's maternal grandfather's sister.

One of Her Favorite Movies Was Apparently the Rocky Horror Picture Show.

Rocky Horror Picture Show is not a movie that you typically associate with the royal family, but now you can. Tim Curry, who played Dr. Frank N. Furter, once said that when he met Diana backstage after a theater performance, she mentioned that the film had "completed" her education and had a rather sly expression on her face.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that  she  had some  relatives that  were  actors and  actresses ====

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About World War II_4

On September 1, 1939, World War II began as an estimated 1.5 million German troops crossed Germany's shared border with Poland. Here are 5 things you never knew about the turbulent years that shook the entire world...

Adolf Hitler Had a Nephew in the U.S. Navy

William Patrick Hitler was the Fuhrer’s nephew and son of his half-brother Alois Hitler. William and his mother moved to Germany after being abandoned by Alois. The young man’s uncle found him several jobs, but they had a falling out when the younger Hitler reportedly tried to blackmail his uncle. William Hitler moved to America, became a citizen and served in the U.S. Navy during the war, following which he legally changed his name to William Patrick Stuart-Houston.

The Russians Lost the Highest Number of Soldiers

The Battle of Stalingrad not only had the largest number of casualties during the war, but the Soviet Union had far more losses than the other countries involved. The Battle of Stalingrad continued from July 1942 through to February 1943 as the Germans attempted and failed to capture the city. The final death toll for Soviet military and civilian casualties caused by the war is estimated at around 24 million, while German casualties are estimated at up to 8.8 million.

One Battle Lasted the Entire War

Even history buffs may not realize that the Battle of the Atlantic was ongoing from September 1939 to May 1945, which was the entire length of the war. For the whole six-year period, the Germans battled against the British Royal Navy, the U.S. Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy and merchant ships in an attempt to disrupt the transport of goods and destroy Allied ships. The battle did not end until Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945.

The Last American Serviceman to Die Did so in His Parent’s Homeland

Charley Havlat was a private first class from Nebraska whose parents were Czech immigrants. He was shipped to Czechoslovakia and was serving there on May 7, 1945, when he was killed as his platoon faced enemy fire from a machine gun. The German officer leading the ambush and the Allied platoon did not know that just nine minutes prior, a ceasefire had begun, effectively ending the war.

Around 425,000 Soldiers Died or Were Wounded on D-Day

D-Day marked the Allied invasion in Europe on June 6, 1944, and is still the biggest land, air and naval operation that was ever conducted. At Normandy, more than 104,000 troops arrived at the beachheads, while 20,000 paratroopers landed in France, which was Nazi-occupied. Although hundreds of thousands of both Allied and German soldiers were killed or wounded during the D-Day invasion, it was the turning point that led to an Allied victory.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I  did  not  know  that  RUSSIA had  so many  military and  civilian  casualties ===

I  also did  not  know that  the  war on the  ocean  last  the  entire  war

dgrimm60

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5 Fun Facts About ATM Machines

On September 2, 1969, the first automatic teller machine was opened to the public at Chemical Bank in Rockville Centre, New York. Explore the following fun facts about ATM machines.

The ATM Machine Was Invented in 1939

Luther George Simjian invented the first machine that could dispense cash back in 1939, and the first dispenser was placed at the City Bank of New York to see how well the public responded to it. Customers in this early day were leery about using the newfangled gadget, so the machine was removed six months later. Simjian reportedly said that only gamblers and prostitutes were willing to use it because they didn’t want to deal with a face-to-face transaction with one of the tellers.

The Machines Originally Only Took Deposits

Apparently, banks were the only real benefactors of the early ATM machines because customers could make a deposit, but a machine to dispense cash hadn’t been invented yet. John Shepherd-Barron, a British inventor, came up with the idea of a machine to dispense cash back in the 1960s; and Barclay bank, based in London, liked the idea well enough to become its first purchaser.

ATM Machines Didn’t Start Becoming Common Until 1973

It wasn’t until the early 1970s that ATMs became more common, and clients didn’t have to rush to their local bank during lunch hour to cash a check or make a deposit. The early ATMs came at a hefty price tag for banks to buy at about $162,000 apiece. The price for an ATM machine has dropped considerably -- they can be purchased now for less than $3,000.

Users Were Robbed by Using a Fake ATM in Connecticut

In 1993, The Bucklands Boys, a gang of criminals, installed a counterfeit ATM at a Manchester, Connecticut, shopping mall. They used the information supplied by customers from their cards to steal $100,000 before they were caught. It took weeks to find the gang members, but authorities tracked them down because they did not pay the bills they owed for the equipment they bought to build the fake machine.

Not All ATMs Distribute Money

While most ATMs can be used to distribute money, in Abu Dhabi at the Emirates Palace hotel and in 20 other locations, the customer puts in money and it dispenses their choice of more 320 gold items. In India, ATMs have a more practical use -- machines can distribute water to customers where clean water is in short supply.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that the  ATM  was invented in  1939 but  was  removed  6 months because

the general public was leery about  the  operation====

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Revolutionary War

The American Revolution officially came to an end when representatives of the United States, Great Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris on this day in 1783. Here are 5 shocking facts about America’s war for independence that you probably didn’t know...

Invisible Ink Was Used by Both Sides to Send Secret Messages

Invisible ink has been around since the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and it was also used in the Revolutionary War. American patriots and the British employed a mix of water and ferrous sulfate to send secret messages. The writing would be placed between lines of a letter perhaps asking about Aunt Gertrude’s health and could be read by holding the paper above a flame or using sodium carbonate to reveal the hidden message.

The Boston Tea Party Was Held Twice

Pretty much everyone is familiar with the story of the Boston Tea Party, where the Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and dumped 340 chests full of tea into Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773. However, a second tea party that most people don’t know about was held on March 7, 1774. This might be because the patriots only found 16 chests of tea to dump overboard, so it was a little anticlimactic compared to the first time they did it.

The Entire Continental Army Was Almost Wiped Out in New York

On August 22, 1776, General Washington's forces were defeated in what is now Brooklyn, New York, by the 20,000 troops led by William Howe, the commander of the British forces. With his back to the East River and the British army in front, Washington, fearing that the Royal Navy could potentially stop his ability to retreat, made a risky but fortuitous decision. He called in flatboats to move his army to Manhattan, and a foggy night those evenings of August 29 and 30 shielded them from sight, so Washington’s 9,000 were ferried out with no losses.

There Was a Female Version of Paul Revere - Only Better

Paul Revere made his famous ride on April 18, 1775, to warn that the British were coming, and two years later, Sybil Ludington, 16, of New York, rode out herself. She raced by horseback for 40 miles through towns in Putnam County to warn New York militia members and rally the troops because British soldiers had set fire to buildings in Danbury, Connecticut. Ludington’s ride was two times as far as Paul Revere’s.

The British Put on Theatrical Performances During the Revolution

The British set up theatre companies during the American Revolution in New York, Boston and Philadelphia. The theatrical groups were commanded by generals John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton and William Howe. Whenever the British army occupied any of these cities, they would put on productions and advertise them. Major John Andre, whom the Continental Army later hung as a British spy, appeared in productions in New York. He also painted the backdrop for the stage in Philadelphia, which was still in use at the theater until it burned in 1821.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I  did  not  know  that   there  were  2 BOSTON TEA PARTIES====I did  not  know  that  there

was  a  female version of  PAUL REVERE===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About "The Crocodile Hunter"

On September 4, 2006, "Crocodile Hunter" Steve Irwin, 44, died after a stingray's barb pierced his chest. Here are 5 interesting things you never knew about this famous wildlife expert...

Irwin Developed a Love of Animals Early

From 1970, Irwin spent his early years at his parents’ reptile park in Beerwah, close to Queensland, Australia. His father was a herpetologist, a scientist who studies reptiles; and his mother rehabilitated wildlife. The younger Irwin helped by feeding the animals and operating the park. He grew up to own what is now named the Australia Zoo.

Irwin Was Afraid of Parrots

For a guy who handled snakes and alligators with ease, it is surprising to find out that he was most afraid of parrots. According to a statement he made in an interview, parrots tended to bite him, and he didn’t know why. He stated that he had suffered some bad bites from parrots and almost had his nose torn off, so it isn’t surprising he preferred dealing with the snakes and gators.

He Named His Daughter After Two Animals

Bindi Sue Irwin was named after her father’s favorite crocodile and a dog. The dog’s name was Sui, and had appeared on Irwin’s show many times before her death from cancer. Steve Irwin said that his daughter’s first name was Australian Aboriginal and meant “young girl.”

The Risks Irwin Took Cost Him His Life

Although it was obvious that Irwin was good with animals, there were times when he placed himself in danger. It may be surprising to some that a crocodile didn't take his life. Instead, it happened while shooting a segment of the 2006 Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, and a stingray caused his death. He died aboard a boat with friends and crew members surrounding him.

A Snail Was Named After Him

Irwin was well known for using the term “Crikey!” and a scientist, Dr. John Stanisic, who worked at the Queensland Museum, apparently remembered this when he discovered a previously unknown tree snail. He said that its colors of orange-brown, creamy yellow and chocolate made it look as though it was wearing khaki. He immediately connected it with Steve Irwin and named the snail crikey steveirwini.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I  did  now  know  that  he was  afraid  of  Parrots ====  I  did  not  know  that  a snail  was  named  after him===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Didn't Know About The Munich Massacre

On September 5, 1972, the Munich Massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics caused the deaths of 11 Israeli Olympic team members. Here are 5 things you probably didn’t know about this terrorist attack...

There Were Advance Warnings About the Attack

German authorities were warned numerous times, including by their own foreign office, that Palestinian extremists were planning an attack during the Munich Olympic Games. In fact, an Italian publication called Gente reported that Black September terrorists were planning to do something sensational as the Olympics were being held. Agencies in China and America and criminal police in Hamburg, Germany also knew.

Israel Rejected the Terrorists’ Demands

Members of Black September, the Palestinian-based group of terrorists, entered Olympic Village and occupied the quarters of the Israeli athletes. They were demanding that 232 Palestinians imprisoned by Israel be released as well as three other militants. Although negotiators in Germany were willing to concede to the terrorists’ demands, Israel refused, saying that its citizens would no longer feel safe if the authorities gave in.

The Rescue Attempt Was Botched

Two of the Israel athlete hostages were killed by the terrorists early on, and a plan was hatched by West German police to free the remaining hostages. However, camera crews in the area broadcast the rescue attempt, which warned the terrorists about their actions. Two helicopters were dispatched to transport the terrorists and their remaining hostages to Reim, near Munich. But by the time it was over, all of the Israeli athletes were dead, and three of the attackers survived and were released as a bargaining chip later in the hijacking of a Lufthansa flight.

Seventeen People Were Dead by the Time it Was Over

Eleven Israelis on the Olympic team, along with a policeman and five of the Black September terrorists were killed by the time the ordeal ended. The police chief in Munich, Manfred Schreiber, said that they had not been prepared to deal with an attack like this. They were trained to handle ordinary offenses unarmed but not against terrorists who had been trained.

Germany Formed a Rescue Task Force as a Result

Germany founded a special task force called GSG 9 in response to the Munich Massacre. It was first used to successfully free the hostages held in Mogadishu onboard Lufthansa Flight 181 by Palestinian liberationists. No recriminations or criticisms were placed against those in charge of the debacle that took place with regard to the Olympic Village attack.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did not  know that  many agencies in  different  countries knew about  the  plan attack ===

dgrimm60

 

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5 Shocking Facts About Princess Diana

September 6, 1997, was a somber day across the world as over 2.5 billion people tuned in to watch the televised funeral of Princess Diana. Here are 5 shocking facts you probably didn't know about the Princess of Wales...

She Wanted to Become a Ballerina

Diana apparently loved ballet as a child and even thought about becoming a dancer. Unfortunately, most ballerinas are no more than 5’8” tall, and Diana would have been considered too tall at 5’10”. Instead of becoming a ballerina, she had to content herself with being an English National Ballet supporter.

Lady Diana Chose Her Engagement Ring Out of a Catalog

Most of the time, engagement rings for royals are custom made, but Diana chose hers from a jewelry catalog from the House of Garrard, a posh London store that sells everything from high-end diamond rings to tiaras. The ring she chose held a 12-carat sapphire surrounded by 14 diamonds. The ring now adorns the hand of Diana’s daughter-in-law, Duchess Kate Middleton.

Prince Charles Dated Her Sister First

Sarah Spencer, Lady Diana’s oldest sister, introduced her to Prince Charles because they had dated in 1977. Apparently, it did not work out between the prince and Diana’s sister because she tended to gossip, which is not acceptable among the royals. Sarah reportedly wasn’t interested in getting married to the prince either, and said she wouldn’t have him if he was a dustman or rose to the position of king.

Her Wedding Gown Had the Longest Train in the History of the Royals

Lady Diana’s wedding gown holds the record for having the longest train among royals at 25 feet in length. The gown, crafted of silk and taffeta, was so special that security was hired to guard it so that it could be kept a secret. A second gown was made in case the original design was leaked to the public in advance of the wedding.

She’s Buried on an Island

Diana’s family members wanted her to be buried in a place away from prying eyes, so the families could pay their respects in private, so she put to rest on a small island at Althorp Park, her family home. The island in the middle of the ornamental lake called The Oval, where the princess is buried, is inside the estate’s pleasure garden. Nearby is an arboretum with trees planted by family members, including Prince William and Prince Harry. The Spencer family’s house on the 15,000-acre estate in Northamptonshire is a mile away.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did not  know  that  she  wanted  to  be  a ballet dancer when she was  young====I  did  

not know that she  is  buried  on  an  island===

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Uncle Sam_3

On this day in 1813, the United States got its nickname, Uncle Sam.  Here are 5 things you didn’t know about this popular symbol of our country...

The Image We Know as Uncle Sam Is Not the Original One

Uncle Sam didn't have a physical image for decades; the term was really just a nickname. However, in the 1860s, a political cartoonist named Thomas Nast began drawing a figure he called Uncle Sam; this figure didn't have a beard at first but later was given one before the turn of the century. The initial images of Uncle Sam were of a white male, usually middle-aged but often of undetermined age. His status as an older paternal figure was cemented around World War I, when artist James Montgomery Flagg drew the figure that most people associate with the name today.

The Concept of Uncle Sam Started as Soldier Slang

The accepted story of Uncle Sam is that the name was soldier slang. When soldiers in the War of 1812 -- though this technically happened in 1813 -- would receive food supplies, they would get these barrels of beef from the United States marked "U.S." The beef came from a supplier named Samuel Wilson, the soldiers turned "U.S." into "Uncle Sam," and the nickname stuck. Eventually, it worked its way into general usage.

You Can Celebrate Uncle Sam's Existence in Troy, New York

Samuel Wilson was from Troy, New York, and the town has several sites and monuments to the man behind what was one of the country's earlier memes. In addition to a statue and marking the location of his grave, Troy also has marked a false grave, the vacant lot where his house used to be, a mural on the side of a brewery building, and other unusual sites.

The U.S. May Have a Male Face, but "America" Has Long Been Represented by Women

The personification of the United States may be male now, but for decades, it was female, especially when referring to "America." Initially, in the 1500s, the land that Europeans were taking over was represented by Amerique, a vaguely Native American woman whose treatment was not always civil, even in art. She started off as a queen; the known continents in the 1500s all had a female figure representing them in art. Amerique would often wear the same flowing robes as the other representations but have a headdress and carry something like a spear.

However, political cartoonists soon went to work, and by the mid 18th century, Amerique was often used as a symbol for the American colonies. She could have imagery representing the thirteen colonies or find herself held down by cartoonish British figures and forced to swallow medicine. During the American Revolution, Amerique's dress became more feather-based and skimpier in contrast to Europe's classical dress. Also during the American Revolution, another female image of America became popular -- that of Columbia, who gained popularity in the 19th century along with Uncle Sam. Both were often featured in cartoons together, with Columbia representing a more moral edge to the country. In WWI, Columbia was often used to depict women's war efforts, especially on the medical front.

It Wasn't Until 1961 That Samuel Wilson Was Officially Recognized as the Source of Uncle Sam

The story of Sam the meat supplier is accepted as the true origin of Uncle Sam, but it wasn't until 1961, when Congress recognized Wilson as the basis for the name. The term "Uncle Sam" is rumored to have been in the original lyrics for "Yankee Doodle" around the 1770s. There was indeed a meatpacker named Samuel Wilson whose containers of beef supplies did reach soldiers in 1813, so while that story may have some issues of its own, it became the most acceptable version.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

I did  not  know  that Uncle Sam  was  at  1st  was  a  nick  name====

dgrimm60

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5 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Star Trek

On September 8, 1966, the TV series Star Trek premiered on NBC. What started as a little space adventure show ballooned into a cultural phenomenon and some of the most beloved characters in television and movie history. Here are five things you probably didn't know about Star Trek...

Spock Was Not Named After Dr. Spock, at Least Not Intentionally

Gene Roddenberry has written that he did not name Mr. Spock after Dr. Benjamin Spock, the noted child-development expert. And he may not have done so intentionally. However, given that Dr. Spock's books had already been in print for a while, the name may have been familiar to him already. Regardless of the origin of Spock's name, the show took the confusion in stride and ran with it; in an episode of Star Trek: Voyager, for example, the Doctor considers choosing a name, and "Spock" is one of his options.

A Massive Fan Campaign Kept Star Trek on the Air for One More Season

Fan campaigns to save or revive TV shows are common now, but in the 1960s, fans organized one for Star Trek that blew everyone away. The show was supposed to be canceled after two seasons, but fans organized a huge letter-writing campaign that surpassed 110,000 letters and postcards. Students at Cal Tech organized a college protest march that ended at the NBC studios, too. That may not sound like much now, when the internet allows for international organization within a few minutes, but it was unheard of in the 1960s for a television show.

Neither William Shatner Nor Zachary Quinto Could Do a Proper Vulcan Salute Without Help

How many of you reading this had to teach yourselves to do the Vulcan salute, where your fingers form a V shape with two fingers on each side? Consider yourselves lucky if you trained yourself to make this hand signal easily; neither William Shatner (Kirk) nor Zachary Quinto (Spock in the rebooted timeline) were able to do so. Shatner had to tie fishing line around his fingers to get everyone to stay in place for the salute, and Quinto had to use a form of superglue typically used in hospitals on skin. 

Spock Was Originally Going to Be a Devil, DeForest Kelley Was Going to Play Spock, and Spock Had the Opportunity to Lose His Ear Points

It's no secret that characters undergo massive changes as TV shows get off the ground and go into production. However, those changes can sometimes be surprising. Dr. Spock was originally supposed to be Martian, with red skin, a food-absorbing abdominal plate, and a devil-like tail; however, Gene Roddenberry worried that, should the space program send a human to Mars, whatever was found there could make Martian Spock immediately outdated, so he nixed that idea. There was also the little problem of how the red skin makeup would work on black-and-white TVs, which were still very common then; the makeup looked nearly black and would have given the impression that Spock was in blackface. Plus, all that red makeup would have been a pain to apply. Oddly, the network still considered now-Vulcan Spock to be too Satanic-looking, but they backed off once they found out viewers adored Spock. Additional changes included having DeForest Kelley audition for Spock, and the option for Spock to lose his pointy ears through plastic surgery performed by Bones (Dr. McCoy) if Leonard Nimoy found the prosthetic ears too uncomfortable.

The First Person to Create Words in Klingon Was James "Scotty" Doohan

Language fans will know of Dr. Marc Okrand, a linguist who created the Klingon language and wrote dictionaries and short textbooks on how to speak Klingon. The work was so thorough that the language app Duolingo even offers a short course in Klingon. However, Okrand didn't create Klingon from scratch. While he did create the majority of the language and its rules, the seeds of Klingon pronunciation and grammar were sown in the first Star Trek movie by James Doohan, who played Scotty. Okrand took the few lines and analyzed their sounds and syntax, and built an entire, logical artificial language that now appears in Bing's translator software.

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dgrimm60

PHKRAUSE

 I did  not  know  that a massive  fane  campaign  keep the  show  on  for  one  more  season===

dgrimm60

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